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General Sessions(abstract) (SSSP 127th Biannual Conference)

 

2013年9月2日

1 Manpower Training and Labor Market

 

 1 Main challenges and their countermeasures on Human resource development in Japan

 (Katsuhiko Iwata, Polytechnic University)

 “Japan’s Industrial Revitalization Plan” in ”Growth strategy” which the Japanese government published this June puts forward the activation of human resources and the reform of Japanese employment system. The measures in the skill development field include as the bold money sift from employment adjustment subsidy for employment maintenance to the subsidy supporting smooth labor movement by skill development, the review of employment insurance scheme for promoting re-learning of working people, and fully using of private human resources business. It is very important for Japan to build the life-long learning strategy and life-long employment strategy (one of its main pillars is the formulation of Japanese Qualifications Framework) immediately towards using young people, women, older people and the persons of disabilities to the full.  The government’s plan is reviewed based on this point of view.

 2 Structure and dynamics of regional labor markets in the light of labor mobility: The case of Japanese new high school graduates

 (Katsuhide Isa, Seinan Gakuin University)

 This paper investigates the evolution of inter-prefecture mobility among new high school graduates, using long-term data from MEXT’s School Basic Survey. At a national level, inter-prefecture mobility rate, range of mobility and mobility distance among new graduates have been all in decline. At a regional level, however, the situation is uneven. Specifically, disparity among prefectures can be seen with respect to these measures even within the same regions. Besides, population influx/outflux disparity also exists across the nation, which could be represented by such terminology as ‘labor supply prefectures’ (mainly located in Kyushu and Tohoku) regions and ‘labor demand prefectures’ (mainly three metropolitan areas). The above situation has been attenuated gradually over the past few decades, due to the less influx of population into three metropolitan areas and the growth of ‘core regional labor markets’ and so on. But new graduates in specific regions still have to migrate to distant prefectures, which implies they have to bear relatively heavier mobility costs. Based on these fact-findings, this paper indicates, among others, the importance of the maintenance and further development of ‘core regional labor markets’ as its policy recommendation.

 3 Technological Change and Labour Market Outcomes

 (Yoshihiko Fukushima, Waseda University)

 The paper investigates how technological changes (technological improvement) affect employment, wages, and unemployment in a labour market. Labour demand by new technologies may be different from the old technologies. Namely, needed labour labour force and needed labour skill are different after new production function is implemented. However, an introduction of new technology does not always imply a decrease in employment. The impact of the new technology on employment depends on the characteristics of the new technology, i.e., labour complementary technology or labour substitute (replacing) technology. Moreover, if the new technology substitutes (complements) labour, the wage tends to decrease (increase). The paper examines macroeconomic effects of new technologies on the labour market in a general equilibrium framework.

 

 Asian Social Policy

 

 1 The Historical Development of Anti-poverty Policy for the Low-income group and the Policy-Assessment in Korea

 (Yuki Tomooka、EWHA womans university)

 Since the economic crisis in 1998, the emphasis of the anti-poverty policy in Korea has been significantly shifted from only the income security to the workfare which requires some work or attendance for the vocational training and education in order to gain income security. We call it the labor-integrated welfare system. As a result, the target of the policy has been extended to the working poor mainly consisted of women and young people who were difficult to enter into the labor market because of the shortage of skill and whose income could not reach to the lowest living standard level because of the unstable employment and the low wage. Since then, the anti-poverty policy in Korea has evolved from the workfare type welfare system as a starting point into a public labor projects and social enterprises. These policies have the common purposes to create jobs and support the working poor’s re-integrating into the labor market.

This presentation tries to clarify the actual situation of working poor in Korea and to examine the historical background of the introduction of each policy by focusing on the relation between the administration and the civic organizations like the NPO. Especially, by historically considering the continuity and complement or the discontinuity between each policy, we can clearly find the meanings of each policy and the problems of it.

 2 A Turning Point in Korean Social Enterprise (SE) Policy and Its Implications: The Case of ‘The 2nd SE Promotion Plans’

 (Hong  Sungwook, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

Social Enterprise (SE) Promotion Act (1 July 2007) is a South Korean state-led policy, which has focused more on grant for labour costs from the government rather than the original implications: civil autonomy and independency. Despite the people’s concern about the issue, the importance of SEs on providing social welfare services and jobs to the vulnerable has drawn increasing recognition from the public since the public sector has shown limitations in its direct support to be provided where it is needed.

    ‘The 2nd SE Promotion Plans’ issued by Korean Ministry of Employment and Labour (MOEL) in December 2012 includes cutting off direct subsidiaries and increasing indirect supports to ferment “ecology of SE” such as social investments and opening up markets for SE. The purpose of the MOEL seems to be the improvement of economic competitiveness of SEs and forming a specific market.

 What is happening on management of SEs in South Korea by changes of the policy above? This study introduces changes of SE policy and its implications, as well as it analyses consistency between policy goals and objects. Data examined in this study include up-to-date information on related policies, laws and interviews with social entrepreneurs in South Korea.

 3 The Possibility of the “Universal Pension in China” from the view of “moderation” and “universality”

 (Yu Yang, JOSAI UNIVERSITY)

 Nowadays, the argument about the characteristic Chinese welfare model which is called “moderate and universal welfare” attracts attention from inside and outside of China. The contents of the model probably mean that at present, the contents and the level of social security should be suitable for the level of economic growth, it should be a system of basic life security to all people.

However, until now, there are any analysis which can be convinced how an economic standard could be matched with the contents and the level of social security system. Moreover, if in the United States which is the biggest economic power, people are not necessarily provided with the social security corresponding to its economic standard.

In this paper, I would like to use the measure of “moderation” and “universality” to estimate the “universal pension in China” which is advanced by the Chinese government, from both sides of contribution and benefit.

 

3 Public Participation of Socially Vulnerable

 

1 Continuous relation support in former prisoners’ social rehabilitation

(Park Heesook, Asahikawa University)

 Former prisoners’ social rehabilitation is not immediately completed by being released from a correctional institution. Work and family become important factors in former prisoners’ social rehabilitation. But, in the case of elderly people or disabled persons, the source of work and family are very insufficient.

Recent cooperation between correctional institutions and welfare systems is an epoch-making measure for supporting social rehabilitation of elderly people and disabled persons. For former prisoners’ social rehabilitation, continuous relation support is indispensable. This report explores the necessity and method of continuous relation support for former prisoners’ social rehabilitation.

 2 Effects of a local government program that provides a place for daytime activities of older people: A case from Hokkaido

 (Yumika Shirase, National Institute of Population& Social Security Research

・Yui Ohtsu,Keio University)

 Numerous attempts have been rendered by local governments to prevent isolation and promote the health and well-being of older people in Japan. Abashiri City in Hokkaido prefecture started a program to provide a place for daytime activities of older people in 2000. The place is called Fureai-no-ie, where neighborhood volunteers organize a group for social activities. It is subsidized by the local government as part of its preventive long-term care program. Currently, 13 groups are established in the entire city. These groups hold a session to encourage recreation and physical exercise once a week. This study aims to review the development of the program and examine its intention and effects. First, the paper explores the history and current management issues of Fureai-no-ie based on participant observations, interviews with neighborhood volunteers and local welfare department officials, and related documents. Second, with reference to a questionnaire survey on daily life and health of senior citizens in the city, this work analyzed the functions and effects of the program. Finally, this research discusses the outcomes and effects of the program on the community and the daily life of older people who have participated in the program.

 3 Investigation of social policy for inpatients of mental disorder – from the perspective of Pharmacotherapy outcomes

 (Hiroki Konno, International University of Health and Welfare)

 In recent years, we have a tendency to increase the patients of mental disorder. It is said that most of suicide are melancholic or depressed. This paper shows a difference of the hospital staying probability for inpatients that are prescribed drugs by using Survival Analysis. If a difference of prescribed drugs is connected with a term of the hospital staying, it is necessary to standardize the remedy of psychiatric care in Japan.

We got 155inpatients DATA, and counted 1858DATA. Average of hospital staying of that is 17.7days. 63% of inpatients left hospital within 2weeks. We analyzed the hospital staying probability as middle classification of drugs. We had a similar tendency for 6middle classification of drugs, but we had a difference tendency for 4large classification of drugs.

In conclusion, a difference of prescribed drugs was connected with a term of the hospital staying. It is necessary to standardize the remedy of psychiatric care.

 

4 European Social Policy

 

1 Austrian Initiatives: Social Security and Free Movement of Workers from New European Union Member States

(Katsuaki Matsumoto, Hokkaido University)

In 2004, Austria established a seven-year restriction on the movement of workers from new European Union (EU) member states. However, the lapse of this regulation in 2011 has provided certain freedom of movement for workers from new member states (identical to that of workers from traditional member states), thus enabling them to work in Austria without first obtaining a work permit.

It was expected that this change would result in a large flow of labor from new EU member states and such laborers would work outside the social insurance system and for wages below the minimum wage. In response, a law was enacted to stipulate comprehensive measures designed to prevent such situations.

This study examines the contents of these enacted measures, their effects, and the resulting issues. In addition, it focuses on the movement of specialist professionals within the field of social welfare (i.e., physicians and nurses) and investigates the current situation regarding the mutual recognition of qualifications, which carries significant weight for such professionals seeking work in Austria.

 2 Netherlands’ Efforts in the U.S.-Led Anti-Trafficking Measures

 (Ayako Sasaki, Chiba University)

 Since “trafficking in persons” is recognized as a serious global issue, the Trafficking in Person’s (TIP) Report, annually issued by the U.S. Department of State, provides information on the extent to which a nation’s anti-trafficking efforts have fulfilled its obligations and/or whether this is relatively reasonable within the international society. Although some criticize the report for its diplomacy and the “Tier” placing method, there is no other document that describes every nation’s comprehensive anti-trafficking efforts and shows their changes over the years. This research will use the TIP Reports published over the past 12 years as a main resource and will focus on Netherland’s anti-trafficking efforts built on the legalization of prostitution—unlike the case of the U.S. and other high Tier ranking countries—to elucidate the U.S. high-ranking points and their outcomes in the international society.

 3 Britain’s University Reforms and Education Gap under the Cameron Government: On the Problems of Education Marketisation

 (Tomoyuki Arai, Chuo University)

 This paper examines the increasing education gap in Britain after the poll on student tuition fees on 9 December 2010 that led to increases in tuition fees. While many university students face huge student debt, the Cameron administration keeps insisting on the advantage of increased tuition fees: improvements in the quality of education.

Considering the arguments in Britain on high tuition fees during 2011, I will argue that a two-tier system of rich students and poor students has emerged in the UK. Focusing on public university reforms which put students at the heart of the financing system, I attempt to explain some problems due to the marketisation of education. Moreover, I will try to discuss whether the reforms proposed by the government are fair for all students.

Last, I assess Scottish universities that have recently increased tuition fees for non-Scot students and the education gap therein. To clarify this further, I provide the fieldwork I did in a modern university in Scotland that had to set such high fees.

 

5 Family, Care and Women in Employment

 

1 An observation based on a Japan – US comparison of women working in businesses aiming to contribute to the society

(Noriko Suzuki, Yokohama National University)

In the recent years, the number of women working and earning income in NPO, companies or organizations aiming to solve social challenges are gradually increasing. But then, in nonprofit organization activities such as volunteers and NPOs including community activities have always had significant female presence, and many women take active role in variety of forms.

Women who work in organizations that aims to contribute to the society while earning sales revenues and expanding business continuously, are analyzed in this report, rather than women who are being active on volunteer basis. The report carries out a comparative study on the way of working for such women using interview results obtained from Japan and US. The main focal points are (1) motive, (2) hiring process, (3) skills and experiences relating to the work function, (4) work details and difficulties, and (6) future aspirations. Through analysis of the above, this report will clarify the commonalities and differences between the two countries, and consider the future directions for Japan.

2 An Analysis of Factors in Taking Child Care Leave

(Mayumi Nishimoto, Hannan University)

The child care leave system is an example of a system designed to promote a better balance between parenting and work for workers with children. Under this system, workers with children of preschool age or younger can apply to their employers for leave to care for children who are sick or injured. Workers may annually take up to five days of leave for one child or up to ten days of leave for two or more children. The percentage of employers instituting a care leave system has seen an increasing trend: from 10.3% in 2002 to 26.5% in 2004, 33.8% in 2005, and 46.2% in 2008. However, the actual percentage of parents taking leave, as well as the average number of days taken, varies by enterprise.

To investigate the factors behind these variances, this report analyzes the percentage of workers with children of pre-elementary-school age who have taken care leave and the average number of days taken by these workers, using individual data from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare’s “Heisei 20 Nendo Koyou Kintou Kihon Chousa” (“2008 Basic Survey of Equal Employment Opportunity”).

3 Cross-national comparative analysis of the transitionroutes from the male breadwinner model.

(Hiromi Tanaka, Doshisha University)

The male breadwinner model as the normative livelihood security system has increasingly been the target of restructure in many developed countries whereregular and full male employment and a stable family have faced erosion. Since2000s in particular, the transnational organisations such as the EU and the OECDhave been proposing guidelines aimed at improving female labour market participation, work-life balance policies and childcare support.

This presentation will examine the ways in which each country has attempted to

transform the male breadwinner model within such international policy trends and to

what extent commonalities and diversities can be seen. It will conduct a crossnational

analysis on each countries’ policy formulations, focusing on the European countries (Scandinavian, Central and South) and East Asian countries, including Japan at the period of the end of 1990s to 2000s. This will enable us to grasp, through the analysis of the quantitive data in the fields of care, work and welfare as well as the survey of the latest case studies, the variations of the dynamic transition route which cannot be fully captured by the welfare regime typology.

 

6 Labor Wedge and Rewards for Labor

 

1 Job Evaluation Program designed for Pay Equity: Present Stage of its Research and Development

(Koshi Endo, Meiji University)

If we can get easily the job evaluation points through the job evaluation program based on pay equity principle, we will be able to make the most of these job evaluation points to improve the poor treatment of non-standard employees as well as female employees and to achieve the equal treatment of all employees in the end.  A team led by Endo, at the request of JICHIRO or All-Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers Union, had worked in the research and development of feasible job evaluation program based on pay equity principle and accomplished it finally.  The report of our research and development titled tentatively “Job Evaluation Program designed for Pay Equity” edited by Endo, added by appendices of “Job Evaluation Factors Description” and “Job Evaluation Questionnaires,” will come out in September 2013.  Endo speaks on our research and development of job evaluation program.

2 Invention Royalties of employed scientists: A Case study of Bayer

(Fumiki Ishizuka, Seinan-Gakuin University)

The rapid growth of German chemical firms until outbreak of the WWI had mainly owed to the inventions made by employed scientists (above all chemists). The employers of such firms tried to motivate their inventive scientists through entitlement of invention royalties based on individualized profit-sharing as an important monetary incentive. But the fact that more and more chemical firms tended to produce with large-scaled production facilities made it impossible to calculate exact individual contribution of each scientist to inventions or products realized by team-work of the whole inventive stuffs, which compelled the employers to rethink about distribution rule of traditional invention royalties. In this presentation, based on the analysis of historical materials of Bayer Ltd., I want to argue how German chemical firm elaborated a new form of inventive royalties from the 1900s through the 1970s in order to meet the demand of the times. I hope that the present study could deliver some findings which enable us to consider a sustainable solution for distribution conflict between employers and inventors.

 3 An analysis of factors which have an influence on the wage profile and the combination of occupations and the market types

 (Takeshi Nishimura, Kyoto University)

 In Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis, Peter B. Doeringer and Michael J. Piore revealed that the internal labor market can be divided into two sectors, the enterprise market and the craft market, and also there is the competitive market around them. Especially about the wage system, they mentioned that it is influenced by certain rules or customs which are peculiar to each enterprise or occupation in the internal labor market though there is no rule in the competitive market. Preceding studies have been analyzed factors that have an influence on the wage profile of occupations classified into major groups, but the influence on occupations of minor groups has not been adequately examined. In this presentation, especially focusing on professional workers we discuss the combination of occupations and the market types in Japan by using data of Basic Survey on Wage Structure.

 

 History and Principle 1

 

1 The Establishment Process of the Disability Pension in the War

 (Itsuro Mitsuda, Ritsumeikan University)

 The original institutionalizing of the pension system in Japan, to which the employees in private companies are entitled, is combined in the Seamen’s Insurance Law, which was enacted in March, 1939. It targeted workers on the sea, sailors. It is acknowledged as a comprehensive social insurance system, offering the old-age and the disability pension as well as medical system, only no pension for bereaved families. However the purpose of the pension system is not to secure employees’ income at when aged or disabled, as OGAWA Masaaki points out that the direct reason for the establishment is to maintain the labor power of sea crew during wartime.

     The main topic of this article is to discuss the reasons for the institutionalization of the disability pension. We draw the conclusion that, the pension system was institutionalized due to the Pension Law amendment, the enlargement of military protection undertaking and the exemption from the responsibility of ship owners for employment during wartime, as well as the necessity of the trial enforcing of a pension system for general employers. It embraced several problems such as strict conditions for receipt, expensive insurance premium and low pension allowance.

 2 A History and Actual Conditions of Japanese Asbestos Work-related Measures in 1970-2004

 (Shinjiro Minami,Ritsumeikan University)

 The purpose of this study is a clarification of policy topics for work-related injury prevention by a case of asbestos disaster and its measures.

In Japan, asbestos use was permitted in principle until 2004, and an outbreak of asbestos disaster became an issue of public concern. Asbestos toxicity (carcinogenicity) was recognized no later than 1970. Labor hygiene regulations as to asbestos were established in the first half of 1970s (for example, The 1971 Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances). However, these regulations were imperfect, sectional, and not necessarily effective measures. I examine the actual conditions of these asbestos work-related measures from 1970 to 2004.

 

8 History and Principle 2

 

1Equality Transcending Equitability: A Study on the Fundamentals of Reciprocity-Oriented Institutions

(Takahashi Satoshi, Iwate Prefectural University)

Social policies that have as their starting point an inequality in the circumstances of constituent members and attempts to confer such policies with a foundation based on social compact theory run into fundamental difficulties when it is claimed that the rationale for the validity of an institution must come from the fairness conferred to all people, and that engagement and participation of individuals in the institution must be of a voluntary nature (based on a recognition of personal benefits).    This issue has been discussed in the frameworks of social fairness, publicness and reciprocity. There are two approaches to countering the fact that the existence of equality between individuals cannot be used as a rationale: one is to limit the scope of the equitable dimension, and the other is to concede to a degree of compromise and give the institution itself a composition that supports an appropriate degree of equity.

In this report, we present a discussion based on the latter approach that is oriented towards specifically developing an institutional policy from a design theory standpoint. First, we discuss an “institutional model based on public reciprocity” as an example of a method for conceptualizing institutional models that represent reciprocity. We then position this model within the framework of the definition of the above approach to compare it with various other ideas, and follow this with an examination of the institutional conditions that relate to enhancing the connectivity within the temporal and spatial dimensions, which poses challenges in terms of increasing the degree of substantive equity. Lastly, we discuss the expansion of possibilities of institutional models oriented towards reciprocity.

2 Mutual aid societies and health care under the Second French Empire

(Yohei Konishi, Kyoto University)

The purpose of this presentation is to consider the contribution of mutual aid societies to health care system under the Second French Empire. The law Le Chapelier prohibiting the organization of trade associations after the French Revolution of 1789, the intermediate groups between individual and state become extinct. In addition to this, the French society become gradually impoverished by the rapid industrialization and the epidemic. It is a mutual aid society that was approved as the establishment of the public interest under this situation. Mutual aid societies as intermediate group have developed rapidly since the start of Second Empire. In the latter half of 19th century, mutual aid societies had a membership of over one million. Mutual aid societies which provision a variety of allowances have especially medical benefits as a main function. Mutual aid societies didn’t only pay allowances, but also permitted people to access to medical services. This presentation examines social welfare activities proper to mutual aid societies, focusing on Second French Empire where health care services began to be systematized.

 

9 Children and Social Policy

 

1 Household Income and Children’s Out-of-school Learning

(Yuka Uzuki, National Institute for Educational Policy Research)

Childhood poverty is of concern in Japan, because it not only damages the current well-being of children, but also increases the risk of experiencing poverty in adulthood. In the previous literature mainly from the UK and the US, several competing models have been discussed in order to understand mechanisms underlying intergenerational persistence of poverty, and different models have led to different policy implications. It takes empirical evidence to examine which intervention is more effective in improving the life chances of children growing up in poverty, directly transferring income to low-income households, providing benefits in kind or vouchers, increasing employment and wages for parents, or addressing needs derived from other household circumstances than low income. However, relevant evidence has been scarce in Japan. This study analyses the effects of household income on time spent on study outside school by 14- or 15-year-old children in the final year of compulsory education, by using data from a Japanese national survey of parents’ and children’s attitudes and behaviour conducted by the Cabinet Office in 2011. It attempts to investigate the effectiveness of the provision of vouchers for out-of-school learning that aims to reduce inequality in educational opportunity.

2 Challenges of After-School Programs for Children in Small Rural Cities in Japan

(Madoka  Kato, Fukui Prefectural University)

Attention on after-school programs is usually focused on issues surrounding the large number of school children on waiting lists for after school child care in urban cities in Japan. However, in provincial areas, where the decline in population is continuing, the environment for child care is changing and measures taken to provide for children after school hours is an important issue to tackle. This report addresses the measures taken to provide for children after school hours in a rural small city, City A, located in the Hokuriku region. City A is taking a proactive approach to supportive child care, by implementing a system in which every child from the first to sixth grade in elementary school can utilize, without cost, the facilities after school on weekdays, Saturdays, and during long holidays. Children can utilize the facilities as after-school care centers (gakudo-hoiku) or as children’s centers (jido-kan). The current situation and challenges of providing after-school programs in small rural towns and cities are examined, based on interviews with children’s center staff and the responsible city departments in City A. Taking into account the advantages and benefits of small-scale operations, measures to enrich children’s after school activities with the collaboration of different community organizations are discussed.

3 A study of the history of foster care in post-war Japan

(Shimomura Isao, Rikkyo University)

 As a system of child protection, foster care has become mainstream in Western Europe, Oceania and North America.

      Currently, the Japanese government allows the deployment of staff to promote a system foster care in children’s homes and child guidance centers but still, about 90% of children in care are unable to access it.

      Immediately after the end of the World War II, under the leadership of the GHQ and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, a system of foster care was put in place. The number of children in foster care peaked in 1958 and since then, growth has remained stagnant.

      Why has foster care in Japan remained on the fringes?  This paper will consider the impact social welfare worker leaders had on the child care decision-making process by examining papers from that time.

 

10 Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labor Force

 

1 An Exploration of the Variables for Quantitative Analysis and International Comparison of the Working Poor – Using U.S. microdata

(Masatoshi Murakami,Kansai University)

This research highlight the parameters associated with the working poor and its quantitative analysis on the presumption that the working poor are compared internationally. Using microdata provided by Minnesota Population Center, the parameters are examined as preliminary steps for quantitative analysis of the working poor in Japan using Japanese microdata.

    In this regard, firstly, it requires consideration of statistical nature in each country. Secondly, it requires the careful selection of statistics that have international comparability. Finally, it is needed to define the limits and potential of international “the working poor” comparison.

    In this research, in light of the above description, quantitative analysis of the working poor is undertaken using variables that are required in international “the working poor” comparison. After that, this research shows the results of analysis and refers to the tasks ahead.

2 Why did homelessness rose in Japan? : Readdressing the causal question  

(Hasegawa Miki, Tokiwa University)

 While much literature exists on issues of homelessness, only a small portion deals with the question of why homelessness rose in the first place. The purpose of the present study is to identify and examine main approaches to the why question and propose a fuller account of increased homelessness.

    Conventional causal arguments either focus on changes in the yoseba system or refer to broader structural changes without enough empirical verification. This study puts together these writings into a single analytical framework and, with empirical data, shows how deindustrialization, urban redevelopment, and government policy shifts to deregulation and privatization—all associated with economic globalization—paved the way to increased homelessness and how similar processes operated in the yoseba system as well.

3 Time-series analysis of employment insurance beneficiaries percentage

 (Jun Fukuda, Kyoto University)

Employment Insurance beneficiary ratio (beneficiaries / unemployment) is an important indicator to determine safety net as to whether or not functioning. Decrease in the rate of receipt as it may be to increase the burden on livelihood protection. I considered beneficiaries rate is affected turnover unemployment rate (unemployed who were employees former / unemployed ), long-term unemployment rate, non-regular ratio, and insurance rate. It is considered to be effective for insurance rate and turnover unemployment rate to increase beneficiary ratio, while it is believed to be effective for non-regular ratio and long-term unemployment rate to lower beneficiary ratio. In this report, using the error correction techniques model using autoregressive vector (VECM), to analyze the determinants of receiving rate while overcoming the problem of serial correlation. By calculating the cumulative impulse response function further, to clarify shock such as unemployment rate are to bring in the long run what effect against receiving rate.