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Symposium Sessions(abstract) (SSSP 127th Biannual Conference)

 

2013年9月2日

1 The medium-and long-term effects of a disaster and the social security system:  a quantitative analysis

Coordinator: Yuko Tamiya(Kobegakuin University)

   In this panel, we will explore the medium-and long-term effects of a disaster and the functions of social security system on vulnerable people’s daily life by using qualitative data. According to previous literature, vulnerability defined by social characteristics such as gender, socio-economic status and disability has affected people’s capacity to resist and recover from the impacts of a disaster (Wisner; 2004=2010). There is concern that people who have a high degree of vulnerability might cause not only significant damage right after a disaster but consistent poverty under difficult circumstances.

  The first and the second paper focusing on lone mothers and disabled people examine how the earthquake affected their living and how social security system functioned. The third presentation assesses the influence of the nuclear disaster based on mothers’ movement addressing safety and security for food.

  We invited Dr. Tsuchiya who is the lead author of the first and the second papers’ mother research project.

1 Disaster vulnerability of lone-mothers and disabled people: Work and social security in post-disaster

(Yuko Tamiya, Kobegakuin University)

  Lone mothers or disabled people have been supported by employment policies since they face barriers to engage in paid work. Many of them are also covered income security as they are disadvantage in the labour market that often accompanied financial distress. This paper examines how the Great East Japan Earthquake affected their employment and how social security system including disaster relief worked to prevent poverty risk using qualitative data. The data were collected from August 2012. Our research team carried out a series of semi-structured interviews with the sufferers in Iwate and Fukushima prefecture. The paper finds that public employment supports are of high importance for single mothers and the disabled, and social security system, which is not intended for disaster victims, unexpectedly mitigate the impact of the crisis on the vulnerable.

2 Investigation of the State of Official Support for the Disabled People Suffered the Great Deal of Damage

(Yo Tsuchiya, Aichi University)

   It is pointed that disasters actualize the structure of social problems usually hidden. This report verifies that the medium-and long-term effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on “socially vulnerable” considered that the brittleness over the risk of disasters are high. This report focus disabled people as “socially vulnerable”.

      It is guessed that the vulnerability of them increased by the structure of the public support as well as the weakness of the life bases from before the disaster.

      First, this report analyze the impact of the disaster to disabled people by the qualitative investigation from the viewpoint of family relations, community, social network, and verifies that the function of the welfare state and the emergency support by results from the qualitative investigation and the historical records and date. Moreover this report verifies that the reconstruction of lives of the disabled people suffered the great deal of damage, and systems and the support organizations from the viewpoint of the compatibility and the continuity.

3 The way of living policy considering from mothers’ interviews against radioactive problems

(Rie Iwanaga, Kanagawa University of Human Services)

   Until now, I have been interested in the analysis of poverty and kept research on measures against poverty. While growing needs of measures against poverty, because of the diversity of life in this economically prosperous country, devising the effective and efficient policy is not easy. On the other hand, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 and The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused unprecedented damage.

In this paper, I focus on the people who are trying to protect their “socially vulnerable” lives after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Specifically, I conducted a survey to interview mothers who have been trying to protect their children from the spread of radioactive contaminations or other persons concerned. In conclusion, I analyze the factors affect their lives through their daily activities, and develop some suggestions for the way of living policy.

 

 

2 Social institutions reshuffled as caring for aging populations: Long-term care systems in Taiwan and Japan

Coordinator:  Yuko Suda(Toyo University)

Debater1: Koichi Hiraoka(Ochanomizu University)

            Debater2: Mie Morikawa(National Institute of Public Health)

The effort in responding to the increasing number of frail seniors often entails restructuring of existing social institutions. Examples include privatization of long-term care services and changing relationships between the government and the private sector as a result. In many countries, privatization also comes hand in hand with a participation of for-profit organizations in service provision. It changes the roles of nonprofit organizations that have been providing public human services since before privatization policies were introduced. Controlling public expenditures for long-term care is another important issue. Preventing premature institutionalization is emphasized as a means to achieve the goal. Services are increasingly provided in residential settings, which urges redefining the roles of government, family caregivers, and service organizations in a private sphere of family life.

The three presenters in this session have conducted comparative studies between Taiwan and Japan since 2009, as sharing the interest in long-term care and changing roles of existing social institutions. By presenting part of the outcomes from the studies while exchanging discussions with two commentators who are versed with privatization and long-term care policies in and outside Japan, this session aims to contribute in deepening understanding on challenges faced by Taiwan and Japan as the two countries care for aging populations.

 

1 Does it matter whether ‘nonprofit’ or ‘for-profit’?: Privatization of institutional care for low-income seniors in Taipei and New Taipei Cities

(Yu-Yuan Kuan, National Chung Cheng University)

As part of privatization policies, both nonprofit and for-profit organizations are increasingly engaged in providing long-term care services. In western countries, such privatization increases competitions between the nonprofit and for-profit sectors, resulting in commercialization of nonprofit organizations. Under the Long-Term Care Insurance system in Japan, on the other hand, for-profit organizations are learning to incorporate the functions of nonprofit service organizations.

In Taiwan, part of long-term care services were privatized by the Senior Citizens Welfare Act amended in 1997. What deserves attention is that local governments take different approaches in treating nonprofit and for-profit service organizations, reflecting that the distribution of these organizations differs in each jurisdiction.

    Yu-Yuan Kuan compares the Taipei City and the New Taipei City as focusing on the roles of nonprofit and for-profit organizations in providing institutional services for low-income seniors, while considering differences in the approach each local government adopts in dealing with the two sectors.

 2 A new organizational form emerging but never social entrepreneurial

 (Yuko Suda, Toyo University)

 Suda focuses on the fact that, in the privatized area of long-term care services, differences between nonprofit and for-profit organizations are commonly decreasing in western countries and Japan. Her presentation explores the possibility of a new-organizational-form emergence as a result of the interactions between the two sectors.

An organizational theory argues that, in order for a new organizational form to emerge, the common identity (ies) need(s) to be shared among organizations and the shared identity(-ies) need(s) to be codified by audience. Suda conducted a survey of nonprofit and for-profit organizations providing services under the Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system in Japan and identified that nonprofit and for-profit organizations were sharing the identity as LTCI service organizations. Suda also conducted a survey of frail seniors who were using LTCI services and their family members living in the same jurisdiction where the service organization survey was conducted. The outcomes suggested that the organizations’ shared identity was codified by the seniors and families, thus a new organizational form appeared to be emerging. Detailed examination also revealed that the new organizational identity relies on legitimacy obtained by operating as part of the governmental insurance system. The finding was inconsistent with a widely shared expectation that social entrepreneurial entities would emerge out of the nonprofit and for-profit interactions in a privatized area of human services.

 3 Conflicting interests between public long-term care services and foreign workers in Taiwan.

(Chen-Fen Chen, Chinese Culture University)

 Chen-Fen Chen addresses one of the common challenges faced by Taiwan and Japan, that is a shortage of careworkers. In Taiwan, hiring live-in foreign workers at home is a widely accepted practice as an alternative to public long-term care services. The number of foreign workers in Taiwan was 306 in 1992 when the Taiwanese government formally allowed foreign workers to be engaged in providing care for seniors. Since then, the number of foreign workers increased to reach 208,551 in 2013.

The public rather prefers continuing to hire foreign workers than  introducing a public long-term care insurance system based on the fact that foreign workers serve in flexible manners while the cost to hire them still remains relatively low. Chen-Fen Chen demonstrates how the possible introduction of public long-term care insurance system urges reconsideration on the roles of government, family caregivers, and foreign workers in Taiwan.

 

 

3 Future of Intermediate Labour Market Programmes and the Social Inclusion in Japan

 

Coordinator: Kazuo Takada(Hitotsubashi University)

   People with difficulty in finding employment is increasing by a variety of factors, for example, issues of life such as breakdown of the family and poverty, low education, poor employment experience, disabilities, disease, long-term unemployment and the repetition of precarious employment. Moreover, in Japan, the government was not previously established sufficient support mechanisms for life and work. In that sense, As well as a problem faced by individuals, this problem is a social problem, and a problem due to the inadequacy of social policy. In the past 10 years, local governments and private organizations have accumulated the results of advanced support. 2010-2012, the government carried out a personal support programme to obtain many results.

In 2013, while inherit these models, the government is planning a new ” Support system of the poor”. In that case, employment preparation support and intermediate labour market programmes will be a center. This session are intended to do raise issues about the job support in the future, from the standpoint of researchers and supporters.

  In addition, Hidetomo TAOKA and Hideshi IIJIMA who are nonmember of this Society do a presentation. When to lively discussions, this report is indispensable.

 1 Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From the perspective of youth employment support

 (Michiko Miyamoto, The Open University of Japan)

 In recent years, a number of support programmes have been developed to help young people in long-term unemployment or NEET Since these programmes were launched, it has become apparent that there are not a few young people who are seemingly unemployable despite the various support provided for them. This suggests that the evaluation standards of conventional labour policy is inadequate in the case of some young people, many of whom are in poverty and have low educational achievement. Disability, ill health or mental health problems are also more prevalent in this group. These conditions are usually combined and making it almost impossible for them to enter labour market which is becoming increasingly selective. On this basis, it can be suggested that success of a support programme cannot be measured by solely the number of young people it has helped to enter into employment. This report first reviews the works that have been carried out by regional youth support stations and the personal support pilot scheme and problems that they face. One of the focuses of the review is the intermediate job scheme that has been experimented by some of the support organisations and its possibilities as well as the difficulties. The report then examines the issues of funding, practical aspects of support activities, and the current social security policies that are relevant to long-term youth unemployment or NEET.

 2 Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From the perspective of employment support for people with disabilities

 (Akira Yonezawa, Meiji Gakuin University)

 Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs) are not-for-profit organizations which activate people who are hard to employ through economic activities. WISEs are expected to be vehicles for the active labour market policy in the any developed country including Japan.

This presentation addresses the subject of the WISEs especially for people with disabilities. This presentation is divided into two parts. First, based on research data on the WISEs collected in 2012, I examine the typologies and features of WISEs. Second, I examine the distinguishing local policies supporting the WISEs. Discussing these issues, I try to provide policy and theoretical implications for the future of Intermediate Labour Market Programmes in Japan.

 3 Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From support activities of SB Center in Osaka

(Hidetomo Taoka, LLP Osaka Syokugyou Kyouiku Kyoudou Kikou

・Hideshi Iijima, Next Stage Osaka LLP)

 Two LLP ran a Social Business Center (SB center), as one of the Osaka Personal Support Modell.The concept is “realization of job experience” and “the creation of a variety of job”.

Our support is Short-term job support, and creation of intermediate labour market. We want to Introduces the efforts of SB center, and to consider the way of employment support in the future.

 

4 Are social welfare policies for single-mother families in Japan all right? :A clarification of current issues

 

Coordinator: Mayumi  Ohshio(Ryukoku University)

Chair: Michihiko Tokoro(Osaka City University)

Debater: Atsushi Fukasawa(Ritsumeikan University) 

   In 1964, the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families (amended in 1981 to the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows) was enacted to provide stability and welfare assistance for single-mother families. In addition, it also included measures to provide support for employment. However, single mothers are currently unable to earn sufficient income in spite of their employment rate being higher than 80%. This implies that the majority of children in Japanese single-mother families live in poverty. The Child Welfare Act details the provisions for establishing maternal and child living support facilities. However, just how effective is such social welfare assistance in improving the lives of those in single-mother families? We believe there is a need to clarify the current situation and issues surrounding single-mother families and child welfare services in order to improve the well-being of single mothers and their children. Therefore, we examined the measures of providing support for employment, outlined in the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows, and the roles played by maternal and child living support facilities. Moreover, we refer to measures targeting fatherless households in Korea, which, like Japan, has a patriarchal culture, but is also experiencing a rapid increase in the number of fatherless households.

 1 Investigating the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows, Articles No. 25 & No. 26

(Mayumi  Ohshio, Ryukoku University)

 In 2012, the Special Act on Support for the Employment of Single-Mother Families and Single-Father Families was enacted. This act allows the government to cooperate with private enterprises to implement priority hiring and promote employment for parents in such families as well as increase opportunities for orders from associations for single-mother families and widows. It should be noted that the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows already contains articles related to employment support. Article 25 permits associations of single-mother families and widows to establish shops and hair salons, while Article 26 permits them to engage in cigarette retail. However, these provisions were implemented nearly half a century ago, and their contribution toward creating stability in the lives of single-mother families is unclear. In addition, there are questions concerning why the employment support articles contained in the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows have not been strengthened.

Therefore, to better understand the circumstances of employment support, we utilized questionnaires to study single-mother family and widow welfare organizations in all prefectures of Japan that are eligible to apply for shops. The questionnaires were administered in fall 2012 with the cooperation of the National Single Mother and Widow Welfare Association. This report summarizes the results related to the major elements of employment support examined in the survey.

 2 Study on the Effects of Services at Maternal and Child Living Support Facilities for Impoverished Single-mother Families

 (Megumi Sakai, Ryukoku University)

 Maternal and child living support facilities are social welfare institutions established to respond to the realities of poverty in single-mother families as well as support both mothers and children in these households. However, the extent to which maternal and child living support facilities have helped impoverished single-mother families is unclear. Therefore, in this study, I interviewed seven women who have used maternal and child living support facilities. I examined the impact of the services at these facilities on poverty among single-mother families. This report discusses the following points.

1) What aspects of facility services do women who have lived in maternal and child living support facilities appreciate most?

2) How do women who have lived in maternal and child living support facilities transform their own lives by using the facility services?

 3 Supporting Single-mother Families in Korea

 (Baek Seung Kuk, Doshisha University)

In Korea, the number of traditional families is currently decreasing due to the universalization of nuclear and single families, as well as the high divorce and remarriage rates. As a result, other types of families are on the increase. One family type that constitutes a significant portion of these households is the single-parent family. Among single-parent families, over 80% are headed by single mothers, with a high percentage of mothers in their thirties and forties. The reasons for families being headed by a single mother are as follows: ‘Separation by death (29.7%)’, ‘Divorce (32.8%)’ and ‘Unmarried mother/father (11.6%)’. This indicates that the majority of single-mother families are formed as a result of factors other than the death of the father. Although society is rapidly changing, it still subtly values ‘first marriage’, ‘blood ties’ and ‘relative-centred nuclear families’. It also emphasizes patriarchal values and familial ties centred on the father’s side. In addition, families including both parents are considered ‘normal’, particularly in terms of official household units, in which children from single-mother families are tacitly labelled as ‘potential problem kids’. Social prejudice stemming from social stigmas and sex role stereotyping continue to create difficulties for members of single-mother families in placing themselves within society. In particular, single-mother  families have a very high chance of falling into the lowest socioeconomic bracket because the mothers find it difficult to maintain stable employment. Moreover, their psychological well-being is perceived as relatively poor as compared to families with both parents . Given that these issues are also linked to poverty and negative impact on children, it is necessary to further examine them before providing preventative welfare support. Thus, this report focuses on the overall difficulties and problems that require urgent resolution and seeks solutions to these problems in order to enhance the welfare and standard of living of these families.

 

5 An Influence and Issues for Japanese and Korean Medical Insurance System due to Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement. –A fact about TPP and Korea-U.S. FTA

 

Coordinator:  Sadahisa Noguchi(Nihon Fukushi University)

Debater1: Takeshi Tsuchida(Waseda University)

Debater2: Chang-yup Kim(Seoul National University)

Abe administration will join the negotiation with Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP) in July. Question is directed to the participation in TPP from the various areas including the field of agriculture and medical care. The major concern is the dismantling of the medical insurance system (the universal insurance system). The United States has always been requesting to introduce the market mechanism in the health care system and remove the ban of the mixed medical treatment or entry of corporation in medicine. Furthermore, the U.S. interfere the rule for standard prices of medicine and demands for profit entry in the field of health care. The price for pharmaceutical products and medical equipment have already included in Korea-U.S. FTA. The focus of TPP and FTA negotiations with the U.S. is Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISD). Under Korea-U.S. FTA, ISD has already been administered. It is my concern that if ISD is included under TPP aiming at the economic cooperation beyond the framework of FTA, the universal insurance system in Japan might be accused to interfere with the medical market of free price. In this symposium, four experts in the area of medical insurance system in Japan and Korea will attempt to explicate the truth of TPP and Korea-U.S. FTA.

 1         What will happen in Japan’s health care system if Japan participate to theTPP: Prediction and challenges

                          (Ryu Niki,Nihon Fukushi University)

 Mr. Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, announced his will to participate to the TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) in January, against his party’s pledge conditionally opposing the entrance to the TPP at the general election last December. The official negotiation to enter the TPP is said to start in July. Mr. Abe repeats his promise to keep Japan’s universal “National Health Insurance System” (NHIS) and  supporters of the TPP also argue that the TPP will not harm NHIS. But they never say that NHIS will be improved by the TPP.

I strongly oppose Japan’s participation to the TPP, but I do not think it will destroy NHIS nor induce complete “Kongo Shinryou” (free combination or mixing of public healthcare services and private ones) immediately. “Here and present danger” of the entrance to the TPP is  removal or easing of public price control system of pharmaceuticals and medical devices under pressure from the U.S. government, that will induce price hike of both goods. Such change will inevitably increase patients’ co-payment as well as public healthcare expenditures. Then our government will cut reimbursement rate for hospitals/clinics and limit the scope of NHIS’s coverage to tackle to the financial crisis in NHIS due to the increase in public healthcare expenditures. These are the first stage crisis of the TPP participation.

Introduction of market mechanism into healthcare  in limited special areas may happen at the second stage crisis.

 2         Korea-US Free Trade Agreement and Korean Health System; Tentative Situation and Prospects of Future Impact

(Seoc-kyun Woo,Korean Federation of Medical Activist Groups for Health Rights)

 In November 2004, the Korean and the US governments agreed to pursue negotiations for the KORUS FTA and the two parties signed the agreement on June 30, 2007. It was March 15, 2012 when the agreement was into force after the renegotiation and approvals from the US congress and the Korean National Assembly.

The US government intended to amend the WTO agreement in the direction of strengthening free trade but it failed. Therefore, the US international trade policy has switched to emphasize more on regional or bilateral free trade agreements than full scale amendment of the WTO agreement.

The KORUS FTA, same as the US FTAs with others after 2003, is not restricted to removal of tariff barriers. The KORUS is comprehensive economic agreement which can make impact on social policy and social security system including healthcare system. Its features can be seen by enlargement of the scope of investment by including intellectual property rights and its inclusion of ratchet mechanism and Investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (ISD) etc.

These features in the comprehensive economic agreement are especially prominent since The KORUS FTA is the latest FTA by the US.

In this context, the KORUS FTA will have a much broad impact on the Korean healthcare system such as medicine and medical equipments regulations, hospital regulations (allowance of corporate hospitals etc), private health insurance regulations, regulations on harmful substance, controls over tobacco and alcohols.

In fact, a regulation on medicine and medical equipments has been changed in June 2013 and the introduction of corporate hospital becomes new issue. The impact of the KORUS FTA on the Korean healthcare system has become clearly noticeable.

 

6 Fluidity of employment and income security in Europe-Inclusion or workfare?

 

Coordinator: Kazuo Takada(Hitotsubashi University)

Chair: Kimihiko Ishikawa(Meiji University)

It may be a cliché that the Neoliberalism is the basic trend in social policies in the advanced economies. This theory, however, canot explain the policy changes, such as the long-term care insurances in Germany and Japan, and the expansion of public assistance in France and Germany. Kazuo Takada argued in an article “Social Policy for the Monadic Society in the 21st Century” (Social Policy and Labor Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2) that the contemporary social policy is changing from merit-based egalitarianism of the welfare state to merit-free egalitarianism, and he named the new trend monadic social policy, a different policy from the neoliberalist. This session discusses various topics about the Takada’s theory from the presenters’ own perspectives. Yamamoto approaches it from her analysis on Swedish labor market policies; Mori from her study on the unemployment assistance in Germany; and Hieda from his comparative survey in the household data of European countries. The presenters argue the topic with their own original ideas totally independent from Takada’s theory.

 1 The types of the long-term unemployed and the inclusive measures in Sweden

 (Mayumi Yamamoto, Hokusho University)

 The unemployment rate in Sweden has remained at 7-8%, and been away from full-employment. According to the annual report of the labor market board, who was re-employed within six months from unemployment accounted for about 45% of the total in 2011. On the other hand, those who were unemployed for more than one year were 36% of the total. This volume can’t be overlooked. Many of the long-term unemployed participated in the various programs which were provided by labor market program and get the cash benefit with sanctions. These sanctions are utilized if the recipients do not actively take part in the program or other job searching activities. However, it is possible to be a recipient as long as one is active to get new job and able to be offered the institutional and individualized support. It would be considered that these measures are planned on the assumption that there is a certain amount of the long-term unemployed in the society.

Since the long-term unemployed are not uniform, this paper will deal with several measures to support them depending on their needs, and derives some implications to understand how the employment policy is used as a tool for social inclusion in Sweden.

 2 Current Situations in the German Labor Market and the Employment Support for Job-seekers in Germany ―The Position of “One-Euro Job”

 (Chikako Mori,Saga University)

 In Germany, the Institution for the social security for the job-seekers was drastically reformed by the “Hartz Ⅳ” of January 2005, and from then on the job-seekers have come to receive unemployment benefit (called “unemployment benefitⅡ” : UBⅡ) and support for job-seeking with the newly enacted “Social Security CodeⅡ”

In this presentation the support for job-seeking for the UBⅡrecipients, mainly “1-Euro-Job”, one of the institutions of offering employment opportunity, would be discussed. The 1-Euro-Job is the additional and public job with low salary for the people who are low-skilled and/or hard to be employed. It would be considered how the 1-Euro-Job contributes to the reintegration of job-seekers into the labor market, or whether it is a kind of rehabilitation, and whether it displaces the ordinary work. Moreover, some implications for the “medium work” which is now discussed in Japan in relation to the independence support for the needy people would be derived from this study.

 3 Neo-liberalism? Merit-free egalitarianism?: Microanalysis of household data in 6 European countries

 (Takeshi Hieda, Osaka City University)

 In recent decades, advanced democracies have experienced transformation in their welfare states. However, social policy scholars have not reached a shared view on how we should characterize the sea change of social policy in the late 20th and early 21st century. On the one hand, some scholars describe these changes in social and labor policies as “neoliberalism” because recent workfare reforms require social benefit recipients to enter the labor market or training and tightening the eligibility to various benefits. On the other, Takada (2012) characterize recent changes in social policy as “merit-free egalitarianism” since these changes, such as Hartz IV reform (Germany) and RSA (France), decouple—not tighten—the linkage between paid work and an autonomous, decent life. This paper derives observable implications from these two confronting claims and evaluates their validity with empirical data. Specifically, it analyzes household data in 6 European countries—U.K., Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, France, and Italy—by using the data from Luxembourg Income Study (LIS).

 

7 The Minimum Standard of Living in Housing

 

  Coordinator: Aya Abe(National Institute of Population & Social Security Research)

Debater1: Yosuke Hirayama(Kobe University)

Debater2: Michiko Bando(National Institute of Public Health)

The discussions around the minimum standard of living a very topical issue in Japan, yet it rarely involves discussion of the role of “housing”. Housing, no doubt, plays a central role in the minimum standard of living, since not only because it is often the largest expenditure in low-income households, but also because it directly affects health and well-being of residents.

    In this session, we will try to approach the problem of housing in the context of minimum standard of living from both quality and quantity perspective. First, we will present the status of “minimum housing” using various micro-data and then also introduce the audience to People’s perception of “minimum housing” using the MIS methodology developed in the UK.

Then we will present an analysis of what affects the satisfaction of housing using our own micro-data.  Lastly, we will conclude with discussions on the status of Japanese housing policy and what issues are present in terms of assuring minimum standard of living in housing.

 1 The Analysis of Minimum Standard of Housing using Japanese micro-data

 (Aya Abe, National Institute of Population & Social Security Research)

 This presentation first introduces the audience to People’s perception of “minimum housing” using the MIS methodology developed in the UK.  Then, it will present the results of “2008 Shakai Seikatu Chosa” which surveyed quality of housing as well as other standard of living.  The results will show percentage of households lacking the “minimum housing”.

 2 Housing satisfaction of Non-house owners

 (Akemi Ueda, Tokyo International University)

 This presentation will show the results of “Survey on Minimum quality of Housing” which was conducted in 2012.  It will analyze the determining factors of housing satisfaction of non-house owners and shows factors such as health, number of rooms, age of houses, amenities affect how people feel about their housing.

 3 Issues in Assuring Rights to Housing

 (Hanako Odagawa, Tokyo Metropolitan University)

 This presentation will discuss the issues and challenges on housing policy to secure the rights to housing of people. While social housing has been the core of the housing policy for low income families the investment on it is now diminishing and it requires the restructuring of the policy framework. After giving some insights on the effects of the Housing Safety Net Act and temporal housing benefit implemented in the latter half of the first decade of 2000s this presentation will discuss the possibilities of varied social housing schemes and housing benefit by introducing experiences in other countries.