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第126回大会におけるLeón教授の特別講演の報告要旨とフルペーパー

 

2013年5月23日

 大会プログラム要旨集に未掲載のDr. Margarita León (Universitat Autònoma Barcelona) による特別講演 “The participation of women in the labour market and childcare investment: views from Europe” の報告要旨とフルペーパーを下記に掲載いたしますので、ご利用ください。

フルペーパーのダウンロードはここから pdf_s

報告要旨:

   One of the most important changes that have taken place in European societies since the 1960s and 1970s has been the incorporation of women to paid employment. The industrial economy pretty much built around male workers has given way to a service economy changing jobs and also workers. These changes in employment together with changes in the role of women has brought about a wide number of tensions and conflicts in modern European societies. This presentation will firstly focus in the tensions that exist between the participation of women in paid employment and fertility looking at changing dynamics and existing tensions in both female employment and fertility. Secondly, the presentation will analyze developments in childcare provision (Early Childhood Education and Care – ECEC) within the framework of a proposed paradigmatic change of welfare states through ‘social investment’. The presentation will give an overview of the current academic and political debate around the pros and cons of expanding service provision for small children (that is, children under compulsory school age).Developments in ECEC at least at the European level have certainly been backed up by a vast amount of research that prove, albeit with different emphasis, positive links between investment in ECEC and (1) female labour force participation, (3) fertility dynamics (3) children’s opportunities in life and (4) productivity imperatives in the knowledge-based economy. Despite the fact that causal connections are very difficult to identify (Gerda & Andersson 2008), it truly exists strong empirical evidence on the connections between the labour market participation of women –specially mothers with under school age children- and availability of childcare provision and/or other family-oriented policies (Kamerman & Moss 2009; Boje & Ejnraes 2011). Family policies oriented towards female employment –such as availability of public childcare- have a positive impact on levels of female employment (Gauthier, 2007) and vice-versa. However, there are significant differences between European countries not just in levels of ECEC coverage but on aspects related to the quality of the provision. Furthermore, it is important to look at ECEC development within broader policies for the reconciliation of work and family life, mainly forms of flexible but secured employment and parental leave schemes. The presentation will finally give an overview of the present challenges and dilemmas that European countries face nowadays with expanding ECEC services in the context of strong austerity social and economic programmes that the EU is imposing on member states as a response to the economic crisis.