Previoues Entries

Previoues Entries

Symposium Sessions (abstract), JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


1.Reflections on Emiko Takenaka’s Theory :  Women’s labor movements and family


After the publication of the Collected Writings of Emiko TAKENAKA in 2011-2012, in the 126th general assembly of 2013, a workshop on TAKENAKA’s theoretical work over production, social reproduction and commodification of labor force was organized.

This workshop aims at facilitating discussion on the following more concrete issues. The first report will focus on the influences of TAKENAKA’s work on women’s labor movements.

The second report will discuss the women’s labor and changing family form in the age of neoliberalism from the perspective of TAKENAKA’s theory on labor market and sexual division of work. One of the reporters is a former organizer of the Osaka Regional Council of Trade Union of Japan (Osaka-Sohyo), and the other  has an experience of working in a youth union.

Emeritus Professor, Emiko TAKENAKA, if possible, will join the workshop to make comments on discussion.


Chair:Nobuko Hara(Hosei University)

Coordinator:Akemi Kita(Fukui Prefectural University)

1.Women’s labor movements in Kansai region and TAKENAKA’s theoretical work.


Tomoko GOKA(A former representative of Kansai Research Institute for Women’s Issues)


This report aims at clarifying the influences of TAKENAKA’s theory on women’s labor movements on the following points mainly based on the experiences of the reporter and other primary sources.

1. In 1960, women’s demands for equal pay were rejected by labor unions. In 1965-73, TAKENAKA’s articles on pay equity, which were carried in the special issue of Sohyo, influenced women’s labor movements in Kansai region theoretically.

2. Emeritus Professor, TAKENAKA proposed a theory bridging the gap between protection and equality. She made a contribution to shift movements only opposed to deprivation of women’s rights to movements for decent work and lifestyle both for women and men.

3. Emeritus Professor, TAKENAKA warns that equality of opportunity will strengthen sexual division of work, and proposes that labor unions should work for equality of result.


2.Labor and family in the era of neoliberalism and TAKENAKA’s theoretical works.


Akiko MINOWA(The Jikei University)


Today, neoliberalism is strengthening again the principles of capitalism in our society, and the gender structure also has been changed. The relations between the capitalism and changing structure of labor and family should be discussed in a new perspective of contemporary changing society.

Emeritus Professor, Emiko TAKENAKA began her study with a minute and critical analysis on the gender structure and capitalism in the period of high economic growth of Japan.

 I reflect on this feature of her study and will discuss how TAKENAKA’s theoretical work can be applied to the analysis of women’s labor and family of the age of neoliberalism in order to suggest what are necessary to resolve problems on labor and family toda



2.Foreign Workers, Immigrants and Multiculturalism in East Asia


Aging and low fertility are significant challenges not only in Japan but also in most advanced societies in East Asia. Since the beginning of this century, the shortage of labor force, especially that of unskilled workers in industries such as agriculture, construction, care and housework, has begun tangible, and some countries opened the domestic labor markets to foreigners. At the same time, the marriage immigrants have rapidly increased as well, which brought about more delicate problems such as education and social integration. Even in Japan, which took the most reluctant altitude to foreigners, the voice of requiring deregulation is increasing in various industries recently.

In this session, we attempt to approach to the international migration and multiculturalism in East Asia through the following aspects. The first presentation will examine the immigration policy in the context of regional economic integration in East Asia, based on theoretical and empirical evidences. The second presentation gives light to the brokers of care/domestic worker in Southeastern Asia, the major labor supply region, to examine their influences to the international labor market. The last presentation, based on the in-depth fieldwork to the support organizations and schools in Taiwan, discusses the change of ethnicity and multiculturalism in Taiwan after the rapid increase of marriage immigrants and multicultural families.


Coordinator:LI Lianhua(Shizuoka University)

Debater:Shogo TAKEGAWA(Tokyo University)


1.Migration Policy in the Context of Regional Economic Integration in East Asia


IGUCHI Yasushi(Kwansei Gakuin University)


In East Asia, tensions are rising as a result of territory disputes and security concerns. Fortunately, there remains strong momentum for promoting trade negotiations to establish institutional regional economic integration. In the meantime, international migration in this region tends to increase, which is of great significance not only to develop economic integration but also to maintain peace and to enhance innovative competence of this region.

From such standpoints, this presentation aims to makes future prospects of international migration in this region based on theoretical and empirical evidences. Firstly, the roles of international migration in the context of regional economic integration will be discussed. Secondly, the mechanism of fertility decline and changes in the labor markets will be explored, which is affecting international migration. Thirdly, not only factors affecting inflow of migrants into Japan, but also growing risks of their outflows and related policies should be discussed. Finally, approaches to develop human resources from East Asian perspectives will be discussed, while promoting social integration of their families especially through guaranteeing educational opportunities for their second and third generations.


2.The State of Labor Market Affairs on Caregivers also Domestic Helpers in the region of Southeastern Asia-Reaching effects into Japan


YAMADA Kenji(Kyoto Women’s University)


The international labor markets are growing so rapidly at the state of many sorts of industries. The agencies which make the management between oversea workers to employee control these markets potently. The activities are extending for sending and accepting countries both side. They could reach the power even for the government to maintain and broaden their business into the world. The key words for comprehending their activities, employment management, banking, human trafficking, exploitation from workers, bribery for the public sectors and so on.

The Japanese labor market is far from the international situation mentioned above. What could be happened in the near future as Japanese government start to accept the migrant workers? This is a report particularized for the field of domestic helper and caregiver.


3.“New Immigrants” and the Multiculturalism in Taiwan: Case Study of Fieldwork in Marriage Immigrants Support Organizations and Elementary Schools


KANETO Sachiko(Fuji Women’s University)


In Taiwan, “new immigrants” (which means marriage immigrants and foreign workers, especially refers to marriage immigrants) have increased since around the 2000s. In the early stage of 2000s, it has been considered that “new immigrants” might have negative impact on Taiwanese society. However, passed about ten years, “new immigrants” are diversifying; their children reach elementary school-age, the situation surrounding “new immigrants” and their social status are gradually changing.

In this presentation, based on the concept of “mode of incorporation” of immigrants, I will focus on how the consciousness of immigrants, the staff or teachers have changed from the case study of marriage immigrants support organizations and elementary schools, and how immigrants have been accepted in Taiwanese society. Furthermore, I will attempt to explore the transformation of ethnicity and the multiculturalism in Taiwan.



3.Income and Occupational Support for Employable needy Persons: from the viewpoint of comparison study between Japan and Germany


Order to respond to the increase of the employable needy, institutional reform is being carried out. In Germany, for employable needy persons, Basic income support for job-seekers has been introduced since 2005. In Japan, for needy persons who are likely to become unable to maintain a minimum standard of living, the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons will be implemented from next year.

In this workshop, from the point of view of Japan and Germany comparison, speakers consider the reform in Japan and focus on two issues. The first is a matter of coordination and priorities between employment support and assisted living. The second issue is the judicial control against the sanctions and obligation.


Coordinator:Hisashi FUKAWA(Hosei University)


1.The Roll of Public Assistance Act in the System of Social Security for the Unemployed


Hideo KINOSHITA(Osaka City University)


It is the most important theme of social policy, what shall the Public Assistance Act do in the system of the social security for the unemployed, when the number of the unemployed and underemployed increase drastic. Someone says that the increase of the recipients of public assistance means an abuse. But when the employment insurance does not function enough, the increase of the recipient of public assistance cannot be avoided.

In this presentation, the speaker analyzes the performance of the employment insurance and investigate the roll of public assistance Act in the actual situation.


2.The Occupational Assistance aimed at Reducing Poverty in the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons


Hisashi FUKAWA(HOSEI University)


In programs for the promotion of persons’ self-reliance in the Public Assistance, various supports for the employable needy have been developed. Together with benefits that ensure a basic standard of living, these programs scheme also provide supports intended to help retain, restore or improve the

employability. The concrete results of these programs on employability, work orientation and social integration are significant.

On the other hand, the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons, without benefits that ensure a basic standard of living, provides supports aimed at reducing or ending poverty through the taking up of employment. Benefit sanctions in the Public Assistance are tightened with the introduction of the new administrative notification. We study whether new act and administrative notification effectively contribute to integrate employable needy into the labor market or to promote social integration.



4.New Frontier of Labor- and Vocational Education


This session focuses on present situation of labor- and vocational education in Japan. Each of our three chosen young specialists engaging in this problem area will give a presentation concerning this matter. In the following discussion we will aim to consider how we should reconstruct our contemporary unsatisfyingly organized labor- and vocational education system which has prevented a lot of young people from getting a good insight into a future working life. As the first reporter, Mr. Isa, a specialist on labor economics, will report on the status quo and problems of university education of labor economy in Japan. Next Mr. Mizuno, a practicing labor and social security attorney, will argue the problematic concerning the instruction in vocational and labor matters for young people given by his professional association in Aichi area. Last, Mr. Isohata, a researcher engaging in HR practices in France, tries to evaluate the situation in Japan based on the recent findings of his field research in French vocational education.


Coordinator:Fumiki ISHIZUKA(Seinan-Gakuin University)

                                       Debater: Tachihiko MASUDA(Senshu University)


1.Past and present of education of labor economy in Japan: An approach by textbook survey


Katsuhide ISA(Seinan-Gakuin University)


Recently many issues have gained public attention pertaining to education of economics and of labor. They pertain to institutionalization of academic disciplines at the universities, and textbooks are one of the main tools to promote it. But in Japan, surprisingly, there have been few studies about textbooks for undergraduates so far in the area of labor economics. The main purpose of this paper therefore is an exploration into the past and present of education of labor economy in Japan through textbook survey and to provide some implications for its future. Specifically, we firstly confirm the development of the textbooks of labor economy and background factors behind it. Secondly, we survey the textbooks of labor economy published in postwar Japan quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, we confirm the numerical attributes of the textbooks, such as their number of pages/chapters/revisions, publishers, publication years, attributes of authors. Furthermore, we identify the types of textbooks (neoclassical, institutional and eclectic) to see their share over time. Qualitatively, focusing on major textbooks, we compare them by title-topic cross tabulation and point out several observable tendencies and problems, such as decrease in industrial relations topics, legal/policy issue topics and definition of basic categories, less emphasis on macroeconomic issues and disproportionately heavier emphasis on microeconomic issues.


2.Current Status and Issues of labor education carried out by practitioners


Katsuyasu MIZUNO(Aichi Labor and Social Security Attorney Association)


In front of the mal-treatment in so-called “black companies” or a possible cut in public pension plan in the near future, anxiety concerning working-life among Japanese young people has grown recently. To cope with this situation the Aichi Labor and Social Security Attorney Association (ALSSAA) has given lectures on labor and social insurance to high school students in Aichi Prefecture with a view to giving them a chance to think about their future working-life. But it has been not easy for practitioners of ALSSAA to explain to schools the significance of labor education and to persuade them into introducing the courses tailor-made for this matter. Indeed only a few schools have introduced such courses in Aichi Prefecture until today while allowing the students only a very little teaching content and very limited school hour for this purpose. But today Japanese young people have a very limited opportunity to learn in their workplace what it is like to work or how they should work. So the importance of labor education in schools in ahead of working-life is growing more and more. To attract a public attention to this matter I will report on the reality and the problems of the labor education carried out by the ALSSAA while searching for an ideal style of contribution of practitioners to the formation of future labor education.


3.Aspects of French vocational education


Kohei ISOHATA(Kagawa University)


Essentially introduced by the Astier Law of 1919, the French vocational education system has been developing in its own unique way in near 100-year history. Above all, the continuing vocational education system was established by an agreement among government, labor and management in the 1970s. Also, two higher education reforms in 1968 and 1974 promoted vocational or technical curricula in the institutions of higher education, main actor of the continuing vocational education. Now, the alternating training is in great vogue, combining the theory in classroom with the practice in companies and improving employability of young people.

In this presentation, I will explain the unique characteristics of French vocational education, based on its history and current state. Also, comparing with the situation of Japanese vocational education, I will seek implications for its future.



5.Consideration of Various Types of Female Labor in Korea: From the Perspective of  “Informality”


Coordinator:Ryoko HATTORI (Osaka City University) 

Debater:Nobuko YOKOTA (Yamaguchi University)


While the globalization has developed rapidly since the 1990s, irregular workers or a-typical workers have conspicuously increased all over the world. On the other hand,  there are so many different kinds of irregular employment type such as we cannot generalize them simply as the irregular work, because the way of the irregularization of labor varies by region and times. Especially, among the female workers in Japan and Korea, another “informal” workers as well as part-time workers and indirect employment such as dispatched and contracted workers hold the majority. While almost all of them are so much excluded from the protection of labor laws, social welfare and a trade union, these informal female workers support the production activities in society. Moreover, the self-employed other than wage workers, which have had the “informal” characteristics of employment have constituted traditionally a large proportion of the female employment in Korea. Therefore, we asked Prof. Joohee Lee and Prof. Myunghwi Lee to make presentation on the actual condition and the structure of the various types of female labor in Korea from the gender perspective.


1.The Informal Employment and the Structure of Labor Market from the Gender Perspective since the 1990s


Joohee LEE(Ewha Womans University)


The female work participation in Korea has grown up since the 1990s as the globalization is proceeding, but this is also a process of irregularizaion of work forces. Then, the irregular workers have become as serious social issues since the IMF crisis in 1998, when the irregular workers started to replace the male regular workers.

Our research aims to examine the gender differences in the mechanism of labor market integration by analysing macro statistics as well as conducting social survey. Female irregular workers tend to work in small business sectors, comparing to male counterparts, and they are often excluded from the legal protections and trade union support because they are seen as engaging informal employment.  Our survey covers the various types of employment, such as contracted workers, dispatched workers and self-employed, mainly excluded from previous macro data analysis, in order to examine the gender differences in labor market.


2.The Historical Consideration of the Formation of the Female Self-Employed in Korea: Through the Fieldwork in the Pusan Area 


Myunghwi LEE(Ewha Womans University)


The structure of labor market in Korea is characterized by a high ratio of self-employed worker in whole working population traditionally. In the 2000s, the self-employed workers account for 30 per cent of the whole working population in Korea. It is important to note that there is a circular relation between non-regular employment and self-employment for the female workers, which leads to fix their marginal status in the labor market in Korea. In other words, the issues of socially vulnerable people such as so called working poor can be understood in the context of this circular structure among the non-regular workers, the self-employed, and non-labor market participants.

Our research will focus on the historical aspects of female self-employed workers in Korea, based on the theory of urban informal sectors. In particular, our survey will focus on the case of Busan city, which has a large population of female self-employed and many of them are the widows of the Korean war.  Busan city has tried several policy initiatives to support them, including micro-finance to start up business are conducted.



6.Current Status and Issues of the Self-Support programs for Needy People


The law of Self-Support programs for Needy People was enacted in December 2013 as a second safety net. Today, many local governments promote Pilot projects aimed at employment and social participation of the needy people. But, since the pace of local governments is not complete, there are various optional support programs, efforts of local governments also are diverse. On the other hand, the approach of support is different from the support system for job seekers which is positioned at second safety net, also the employment support beneficiaries under the minimum living guarantee system as the last safety net.

In view of such things, there are many issues to be discussed in this system. For example, there are issues surrounding the concept that defines the support method. What kind of support local governments can provide?

In this workshop, we try to understand the current situation and problems of the Self-Support programs for Needy People, first from the point of view of project implementing bodies (local governments, support organizations and social enterprises), secondly from the point of view of the nature of individual support (continual counseling support and employment support).


Chair:Junri SAKURAI (Ritsumeikan University)

Coordinator:Hiroyuki FUKUHARA(Osaka City University)

1.          Institutional framework of the Self-Support programs for Needy People : from the point of view of the activation policy


                      Hiroyuki FUKUHARA(Osaka City University)


Since the 1980s, in the Western countries, there were a variety of activation policy as the social inclusion for the poor and needy people. They may be divided into several types. On the other hand, in Japan since the late 1990s, the policy of the government to the poor and needy people contain a different type of activation,   and some employment support measures.

Under these circumstances, Self-Support program for needy people is going to be implemented. I will approach to this system from the point of view of international comparison of activation, and discuss the significance and limitations of this program.


2.Current State and Issues of Local Governments in Conducting Self-Support programs for Needy People : From the perspective of promoting and activating social resources in local community


Norimichi GOISHI(Osaka City University)


Self-help support programs are under the jurisdiction of local governments and classified as self-governing function, while public assistance are classified as statutory entrusted function. In this system, ‘decentralized and creative support’ is emphasized.

The concept of self-help support contains not only conventional welfare, but also employment, housing, family financial management support and educational support. It will be significantly difficult tasks for local governments to implement this program. Furthermore, while providing with cash benefits are main business under the conventional welfare, providing with care services are main business under the new system. In this regard, a new approach, which will be different from that of the existing systems, is required.

To tackle these challenges, how are local governments preparing? Local governments show a variety of directions in implementing this new system. In this report, we will study typical cases and investigate their effectiveness.


3.Current Status and Issues of contract private organizations of the Self-Support programs for Needy People : Social enterprise responsible for the employment preparation program and intermediate labor market program


Atsusi FUJII(Rikkyou University)


The Self-Support programs for Needy People is a system which is intended to lead the needy people to stable employment or social participation. In particular, the employment preparation program and intermediate work program are important. In this program, there are the policy of expansion of short-term work opportunities   in the private sector on the one hand. But, the support policy of long-term the work experience is more desirable in the case of people who suffer from various difficulties on the other hand.

However, on the assumption that the government does not provide financial assistance, the development of opportunities for intermediate work is a major issue.  At the same time, it would be important to provide opportunities for work experience with high-quality and stability.

Focusing on social enterprise as subject to challenge in this challenge, we will analyze the evolution of the social enterprise, in particular the network and coordination from the point of view of the organizational theory.


4.An inquiry into The Self-Support programs for Needy People : the scheme and functions of continually providing personal and comprehensive support services


Yusuke KAKITA(Oita University)


People with difficulty in life are in economic poverty and social isolation. Therefore, for them, it is required not only support for work, but also support for daily life and social relationship.

From this perspective, this paper, by analyzing the support for needy people for real, aims at addressing the scheme and functions of continually providing personal and comprehensive support services. Through this analysis, this paper examines issues about policy and practice for people with difficulty in life.


5.Current Status and Issues of The Self-Support programs for Needy People by social enterprise :Verification of the role of the work support with an emphasis on the party concerned


Kendo OTAKA(Seigakuin University)


“Employment” support is well recognized in the Self-Support programs. But, “work” support (assistance in the field of work) is critical important. But, employment support tend devoted focus not only on the improvement of willingness and employability of the parties, but also look to the aspect of “place of work”.

In the circumstance which a variety of people work in cooperation, as well as aware of the role of their own, how to build a work environment that allows to support companion and take care of teamwork? I try to discuss the construction of independence against the work which may be raised naturally in that environment.



7.Limit of Full Employment and Recent Changes in Social Policies in Japan and Europe


Unemployment rate in the advanced economies has kept high due to low economic growth and increased female work force. Japan also faces unfavorable labor market while unemployment rate is relatively low. In Europe we see increased flexibility in labor market on the one hand and also broadened field of social security on the other. Some countries have new public assistance with no or easier means test. Japan has followed same path. The session will discuss recent changes in Dutch and Japanese social policy as continued session from the 127th meeting as well as theory of poverty in Europe. Main focus rests on that 1) the Dutch “flexicurity” is limited to flexibility in labor market, not included social security, in particular social welfare; 2) Japanese “second safety net” is similar to European programs, but has not principles of self determination and merit-free egalitarianism; 3) Also in the theory of poverty Sen’s notion of capability has possibility of new theory based on self determination and merit-free egalitarianism. It presents the same direction as the social policies discussed or to be discussed here.


Chair:Kimihiko ISHIKAWA (Meiji University)

Coordinator:Kazuo TAKADA(Hitotsubashi University)


1.Flexicurity policy and the long-term unemployed in the Netherlands


Takamitsu KUBO(Meiji University)


Flexicurity programs for the long-term unemployed in the Netherlands will be discussed based on my survey in March 2014. The Dutch government shortened the duration of unemployment benefit from 60 months to 38 months in 2006. It is still long and generous for the unemployed. After expiry of the benefit, people still in unemployment can be transferred to the public assistance. But they cannot receive the money before they pass means test. They have to sell their houses and cars to pass the test. Great is the gap between statuses of the unemployed with generous benefits and the recipient of public assistance. This is the traditional policy which was standard in the 20th century. But now, it is quite different from RSA in France and Hartz IV in Germany which situate between social insurance and traditional public assistance. The Dutch “flexicurity” is limited to labor market, in that it is equal status between regular workers and atypical employees. It is not security for the long-term unemployed. The Dutch policy for the unemployed is based on self-help principle. It is a conservative policy, different from French and German policies toward unemployed people which is based on self-determination and merit-free egalitarianism.


2.Revisit in the theory of poverty –From relative poverty to social exclusion


Nobuo SHIGA(Graduate Student ,Hitotsubashi University)


Peter Townsend’s theory of relative deprivation is the most important theory of poverty in the present Britain. It focuses on insufficiency in consumption. When he established the theory, full employment was a practical target of economic policy, and unemployment was seen a transient phenomenon. Then, he thought that temporal benefits were sufficient to enter again to the working lives and social integration. Full employment was, however, difficult to attain since 1980s, and “new poverty” emerged. The new social problem means that social integration will be impossible with just the dole to support consumption. Amartya Sen proposed the notion of capability which is to substitute for insufficiency of consumption. The report maintains that Sen’s notion reveals dead-end faced by the British theory of poverty, and that by using the notion of capability we can understand “new poverty” clearly, and develop a new theory in social inclusion.


3.Current status and issues of “Second Safety net” in Japan


Takao SASAKI(Tokyo University of Social Welfare)


In response to the increased unemployment rate after the Lehman Shock, the Japanese government launched a new program, called Second Safety Net. The main program includes the support system for job seekers that has been in place since 2011 as well as the support system for needy persons which was implemented in 2015. These systems are expected to function in between for the social insurance and public assistance.

While there have been various discussions about individual systems that are included in the Second Safety Net, there have not been adequate discussions about why Second Safety Net is required in addition to the existing systems and ongoing problems that the social security system has faced as well as how Second Safety Net is trying to solve the problems.

In this report, we aimed to analyze Second Safety Net in such aspects and consider about our future challenges.