Previoues Entries

Previoues Entries

Archive : 5,2014

Plenary Session (abstract) (SSSP 128th Biannual Conference)


Social Reform Thought and the Present Age: Questioning the Intellectual Foundations of Social Policies

Chair:Koichi HIRAOKA(Ochanomizu University)

Kaori KATADA(Hosei University)


In recent years, there has been growing interest in the various streams of social reform thought that have affected the historical development of social policies and contributed to the intellectual foundations of welfare states. This plenary session will focus on several of these streams originating in both the West and Japan, to examine their influence on the formation of modern welfare state systems and to discuss their contemporary significance.


1.Concepts of “the Social” and “the Economic” in the History of Social Policy Ideas in France

                     Takuji TANAKA(Hitotsubashi University)

Recent social policies in developed countries are, at first sight, converging towards “workfare” under the pressures of globalization and post-industrial economy. The present study demonstrates a different orientation toward reforms by referring to the history of the French welfare state and recent welfare reforms in France. This orientation shows that the idea of “social solidarity” (solidarité sociale) plays an important role in recent French reforms, which shift toward universalization of an individual’s “free choices” rather than workfare.

 In the first and second sections, this study describes the history of the formation of the French welfare state. It focuses on the philosophical conflicts between the idea of the primacy of industrial development (the economic) and the primacy of mutual aid (the social) in social policy from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. Solidarism proposed by Leon Bourgeois at the end of the 19th century reconciled these conflicts. In the 1940s, Pierre Laroque provided a basic institutional framework for the French welfare state under the influence of this ideology of solidarism.

In the third section, the present study examines contemporary welfare reforms in France from a philosophical perspective. In the 1980s, “social exclusion” became a major issue in the discussions of social policy. The French government introduced new family policies and inclusion policies, aiming to assure an individual’s “free choices” in terms of life-style and work-life balance. This study demonstrates that the traditional ideology of “social solidarity” played an important role in introducing these new welfare policies.


2.Karl Polanyi and Ideas on Social Reform Re-examined: Controversial Basis of the Market Society

Midori WAKAMORI (OsakaCityUniversity)

 It has become commonplace that Karl Polanyi is more relevant today than ever. Certainly the obvious consequences of neoliberal policies since the 1970s -when Ronald Regan in the United States and Margaret Thatcher in the UK launched a systematic attack on the legacy of Keynes=Beverage Welfare State- are increasing market instabilities reminiscent of the 1930s, as well as a growing loss of democratic control.

In The Great Transformation, of which first-edition was published in 1944, Polanyi shows his interpretation of the history of industrial society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when there occurred great crises and upheaval of the market society; the Great Recession, severe unemployment problems, financial instability, crisis of democracy, economic nationalism, fascism, and great wars. The lasting interest and insights in the book extend beyond an analysis of the nineteenth century market society. Polanyi has important insights to understand the very context of the rise and fall of the Welfare State.

 One of his theses is that during economic crisis, economic liberalism requires “social reform” for the market. Free-market liberalism promotes various projects of “planning for competitive market system” for creating an environment in which private interests can flourish. In case of “emergency”, it can become openly anti-democratic in defense of the market and encourages a strong state authority that has the capacity to resist “spontaneous” social protection movements in the product, labor, and financial markets. According to Polanyi, completely unfettered markets lacking social control were destructive of the livelihood of common people and eventually generated social reactions that sought to intervene in the market system to secure a more secure society.


3. Economic and Social Factors in the History of Ideology and Thought in Social Policy in Japan

                        Kingo TAMAI (Aichi Gakuin University)

 One century has passed since the Society on the Study of Social Policy was established in order to conduct social reform in Japan. During this period, a great many ideologies and thoughts appeared in the Society. Currently, we should ask how the pattern of social reform has changed, and also how the core principle has been maintained without drastic changes.

  Social policy plays two roles in relation to the market. First, it establishes regulations and rules such as labor policy so as to promote the market mechanism. We can say that this function of social policy works as an economic factor. Second, it deals with the problems caused by the market mechanism. This means the social dimension of social policy.

  When we reflect on Japanese social policy history on ideology and thought, it is possible to find cases of both harmonization and conflict of economic and social factors in each period. The balance of the two factors in policymaking determines decisions on the content of social policy.

  We would like to propose a new approach to the ideology and thought of social policy in the 21st century, highlighting the dynamism of economic and social factors in social policy through a historical perspective from the pre-war period to the present.


[Special Lecture] Labor and the Double Movement

 Sanford M. Jacoby(University of California, Los Angeles)

  In his brilliant book, The Great Transformation, Karl Polanyi developed the idea of the double movement: the recurring swings between market expansion, spontaneous opposition, and subsequent market regulation. My talk is an historical overview of market regulation—economic and social–during the 20th century. It emphasizes the contributions of the modern state, policy experts, and labor unions. Then it turns to a development that Polanyi could not foresee: the neoliberal countermovement of the past thirty years. It’s had a devastating effect on American unions. Now they are struggling to reinvent their movement.

Will there be a reaction to the current neoliberal hegemony?  What can the labor movement contribute if this occurs? These are great but unanswered questions. While the talk emphasizes the United States, hopefully it has some relevance to other nations.

Symposium Sessions(abstract) (SSSP 128th Biannual Conference)


1.  Methodology of Study on Industrial Unions in Japan

Chair・Coordinator:Yoshio SASAJIMA(Meiji Gakuin University)

Debater:OH Hak-soo(Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)

In Japan labor union is a company–based union and it negotiates with its employer. On the other hand, an industrial association of company-based unions (Japanese style industrial union) do not negotiate with the employers’ organization. There is no inter-company wage negotiation in Japan.

But from 1950s’ to 1970s’ inter-company wage negotiations existed in several industries. Social actors called these negotiations ‘united negotiation’, ‘group negotiation’, ‘combined negotiation’ or ‘diagonal negotiation’. The association of company-based unions took part in inter-company negotiations as a major industrial relations’ actor. In 1960’ it also planned a conversion from company-based union to industrial union.

In this session we examine inter-company wage negotiations and plans for industrial unionization in post-war Japan and consider how to research functions of Japanese style industrial unions.


1.Inter-Company Wage Negotiations and Industrial Unionization

Fumito MATSUMURA(Nagoya City University)

In post-war Japan, besides company-based wage negotiations, inter-company wage negotiations existed in several industries. Social actors called these negotiations ‘united negotiation’, ‘group negotiation’, ‘combined negotiation’ or ‘diagonal negotiation’. In these industries the association of company-based unions took part in inter-company negotiation as a major industrial relations’ actor. We call these negotiations ‘industrial-level wage negotiations’.

In this study I survey industrial-level wage negotiations in six industries; private railway, coal, beer, metal working, textile and marine transportation. I give a presentation on formation factors of these negotiation systems, the process of their progress and decline.

The association of company-based union also planned a conversion from company-based union to industry-wide union in private railway and beer sector. I also examine the purpose of industrial unionization and the process of its decline.

I want to compare inter-company negotiations and industrial unionization between European countries, Korea and Japan.


2.Two Case Studies of Inter-Company Wage Negotiations: Metal Working and Marine Transportation

                       Hiroaki FUJII(Nagoya Sangyo University)

This study examines the factors that maintain inter-company wage negotiations, based on two case studies of negotiations of Zenkoku-Kinzoku (national trade union of metal workers) Ishikawa branch and All Japan Seamen’s Union.

Negotiations of Zenkoku-Kinzoku Ishikawa branch were called “Ishikawa method”. The feature of Ishikawa method was cooperative actions between enterprise unions under the control of the local headquarter to standardize working conditions.

The feature of negotiations about seamen was multi-employer negotiations between shipowners’ groups and All Japan Seamen’s Union. But some negotiation groups have been broken down, and multi-employer negotiations have decreased since 1980.


3.Two Case Studies of Inter-Company Wage Negotiations: Coal and Textile

Makio KIMURA(Asahi University)

 This study focuses on two case studies of coal and textile industries, and discusses their institutional function of inter-company wage bargaining and their forming and declining conditions.

As to their institutional function, participations by industrial relations actors, scope and procedure of the bargaining are examined. As to their forming and declining conditions, the evolution of Japanese post-war industrial relations and the features of industrial relations actors, role of the Labor Relations Commission are examined.

Inter-company wage bargaining in the coal industry, called “Taikakusen” (diagonal line) bargaining, was formed after highly integrated bargaining broke down. Those of small firm groups in the textile industry, called regional group bargaining, were formed along with the major firm groups during the period of high growth economy. However declining periods of two cases are different, their common factor was more tightly competitive markets where many firms had to withdraw from their bargaining because management gap among them expanded so much that some of them couldn’t afford paying their same rates and also because the other firms were closing down.


Reasonable Accommodation in the Employment of Persons with Disabilities who Find It Difficult to Acquire Reasonable Accommodation                      

Chair・Coordinator:Kimiko NAGASAWA(University of Kochi)

In anticipation of ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Japan, the law for Employment Promotion of Persons with Disabilities was revised in 2013 to incorporate a clause “reasonable accommodation”(RA) shall be provided to every handicapped employee beginning of 2016. The definition and details of RA are written in official documents, yet many challenges await to ensuring compliance to the new law, especially for the persons with disabilities who find it difficult to acquire the RA in an employment setting.

This session aims to clarify the problems with obtaining RA and consider ways and means to implement the RA in the handicapped workers’ workplace in Japan by bringing in examples of the cases in other countries. The first presenter outlines discrimination against disability and RA and examines how to reduce the inequalities for persons with severe disabilities. The second presenter examines the concept of RA and suggests solutions to the current problem by using the concept of Interactive Process. Then the third presenter looks at the social employment and issues on assurance of the wages for the handicapped employees in Japan in comparison to other East Asian countries.


1.What Are Discrimination on the Basis of Disability and Reasonable Accommodation, and What Should Be Discussed to Solve Inequalities for Persons with Disabilities ?

Masayo TOHYAMA(University of Kochi)

After the enforcement of the Anti-discrimination Law in the US and the UK in the 1990s, there have been discussions on these laws for ratification of “the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, in Japan. As a result, in 2013, the law to eliminate discrimination against disability has enacted in Japan. But at the present, the content of discrimination and reasonable accommodation (RA) in the law is no more than conventional in its definition and measures. Especially, it is important to discuss equal opportunity for persons with severe occupational disabilities. The purpose of this presentation is firstly to highlight the specifics of discrimination against disability and reasonable accommodation at work place, and secondly to examine how to solve the issues related to inequality for persons with severe disabilities. Finally, I would like to sort out the points under discussion and to present further direction of the policy for solutions and countermeasures.


2.The Challenges in Operation and Concept for Practice of Reasonable Accommodation in the Real World

Ritsu YAMAMURA(Nihon University)

 Responding to a passage of new discrimination law, reasonable accommodation (RA) for people with disabilities especially in an employment setting has received more attention than ever. While there are visible signs of efforts for vague, there are some issues which should be tackled for the realization of effect of RA in practice; especially, difficulty with implementation of RA, and that the concept of RA might not be conceivably fully understood in Japan because RA is based on the concept of civil rights with which people in Japan is not necessarily familiar. However, understanding of the concept is critically important for RA to fulfill its primary function. At the same time, getting right understanding of this concept could bring the way to solve the first issue. In this presentation, I will explain those two issues and the relationship between them, and make a proposal of the solution with the use of the concept of Interactive Process.


3.The Problem and the Vision of Social Employment in East Asian Countries: Including the Viewpoint of Income Assurance for Persons with Disabilities

Hiroshi ISONO(Shizuoka welfare and medical specialized collage)

Japanese government has ratified “The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” published by United Nations on June 20, 2013. But there still remain many problems concerning the policies related to the issues faced by persons with disabilities in Japan. One of the problems is social employment. Social employment is provided as “seamless employment” in “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” (Chapter 27). This presentation considers the problem and the vision about social employment in East Asian countries, especially Japan as well as Korea and China where the convention was already ratified.

On the other hand, Japanese “Sub-committee on Welfare Services on the Committee for Disability Policy Reform” proposed the “Framework Recommendation for Comprehensive Welfare Law for Persons with Disabilities” in 2011. The prescript of work and employment is specified in this recommendation (ⅲ, 3), and it emphasizes the necessity for social employment and connection between social employment and income assurance for persons with disabilities especially their pension. This presentation also considers the problem and the vision of the assurance of the income for the persons with disabilities in Japan compared to the situations in Korea and China.


. Non-regular employment in the field of Education, Childcare, and Public Service and its influence                               

Chair:Taichi ITO(Osaka University of Economics)

Coordinator:Koichi OGIHARA(Japan Welfare Education College)

The number of non-regular employees has been consistently increasing and was at its highest in 2012. It now accounts for 35.2% of employment in Japan. A main reason for this why they have become non-regular employees, “For lacking jobs of regular employment.” has been chosen by 30% of those men and 15% of those women. In April, 2013, the Labor Contract Act took effect with the aim of shifting non-regular employees to regular employment.

Based on this employment situation, we have chosen three topics to be discussed, which are 1) Education, 2) Childcare, and 3) Public Service. In the field of education, we found trends in organization and opposition. These trends were caused by the change in the employment of part-time professors because of the revisions made in the Worker Dispatching Act. In the next field of Childcare, we are going to focus on the employment issues of non-regular employees at private nursery schools, which have been increasing due to deregulation and labor-intensive. In the last field of Public Duties, we are going to examine the systematization of non-regular employees and the problems it causes, taking a local government as an example.

The purpose of this subcommittee is to analyze how we can respond and create a new social policy for those non-regular employees who are used in order to reduce labor cost against their will.


1.Protesting and Organizing for Survive : The Waseda union’s movement

Taku IMAI(Nihon University)

The revised Labor Contract Act went into effect in April 2013, which stipulated more stable employment and better conditions on a definite contract workers.  University Part-time lecturers, whose contracts repeat over and over again, will be Given the right to request an indefinite contract. But the board of trustees of  Waseda University has established the Work Regulations for Part-time Lecturers to evade Articles 18, 19, and 20 of Revised Labor Contract Act through unilateral unfavorable modifications of the contract. By setting the five year limit on the renewal of contract so that no one can request that their contract be changed to one without a fixed expiry date. And by limiting the number of classes(comma) each lecturer can teach each year to maximum of four to make less conspicuous the un reasonable discriminatory treatment between full-time faculty members and part-time lecturers. About six months later, The union of university part-time Lecturers in Tokyo Area has succeeded in mobilizing 100 Part-time Lecturers starting from the membership from about a dozen at Waseda University, and established the Waseda Union. This report is about protest and organizing, and will investigate how the union movement should fight against firing a definite contract workers.


2.A Case Study of non-regular workers in Private Nursery School―Focusing on Job Specifications and Cooperation among the Workers

  Harumi OBI(Graduate Student, Chuo University)

Child care needs have been increasing year after year. Among these needs, there are insufficient nursery teacher. The most common reason given for the problem is working conditions of nursery teacher such as low payment , early turnover, the number of non-regular workers has been increasing. The purpose of this study examine the working conditions and Job Specifications of non-regular workers through the analysis of their work and point out the issue based on a private day nursery case.

This paper proposes a resolution for the following points. There is a distinction labor conditions and the job area between regular workers non-regular workers in nursery. However, non-regular workers demanded to develop their skills and Knowledge. Have no opportunity of Development of Teaching Abilities besides.


3.Organizing of Non-Regular Local Public Service Workers in U City

Hiroshi UEKI(Ritsumeikan University)

In recent years, we have recognized the non-regular public service workers are working under inferior conditions, called ‘Kansei-Working-Poor”. The industrial union of local government workers, like Jichiro and Jichiroren, have addressed the organizing of non-regular workers under unavoidable circumstances. And then, we can see some case of it. But, the problem of bad working condition and the situation of unorganized contingent workers have existed since before.

  In this respect, It is a rare case that the U-Shisyokurou ( Union of Municipal Workers in U City) have addressed the organization of contingent workers since 1970’S, and currently organizes some union which is based on workplace (e.g. child care center, sanitation department).

Therefore, it is important to discuss that why the U-Shisyokurou have succeeded the organizing of non-regular workers since 30 years before and what is the achievement and problem of it.


New directions in social welfare policies in Japan  

Chair:Kimihiko ISHIKAWA(Meiji University)

Coordinator:Kazuo TAKADA(Hitotsubashi University・Emeritus Professor)

The Japanese welfare services are changing now. It was paternalistic and authoritarian, now slowly moving toward self-determination and “merit-free egalitarianism”. This session clarifies such changes by two specific studies. The first presentation analyzes a care management in Kawasaki where a community organization   drastically changed the care management. Genuine care-management has been established by utilizing various resources outside the Long-term Care Insurance. The reasons why the system has succeeded are that the community organization mobilizes government, specialists, and local people. Also effective is organizing principles. The second paper points out that Japanese laws concerning to sexual violence began from the Prostitution Prevention Law of 1956 and Protective Care Services for Women stipulated by the Law are extended to DV-related law (the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims of 2001). It maintains that sexual violence theory should be based on trilateral relations, instead of the present bilateral one, because prostitution is usually managed by the third party. The two papers will conclusively reveal that the basic characteristics of the recent changes in the welfare policies and practices rest on self-determination and “merit-free egalitarianism”.


1.Social values in community organization in Kawasaki, Japan

Miki SUZUKI(Graduate Student, Hitotsubashi University)

The paper reveals policy ideas embedded in a community organizing in Kawasaki, where a network organization established by the Kawasaki City government provides effective care management, under which outreach services find out hard-to-find cases and successfully give them relieves. For example, a family of old mother and unemployed son who were isolated with no assistance   recovered with its assistance. Analysis of the activities reveals the basic features of the organization, that is. 1) network organization to mobilize various resource, and 2) anti- authoritarian spirit in the actions (concepts of self-determination and “merit-free egalitarianism”). The paper presents evidences to prove that the two concepts enables effective care management.


2.The Contemporary Issues of Protective Care Services for Women

  Chizuko HORI(Josai International University)

Protective Care Services for Women is the social work is stipulated in e the Prostitution Prevention Law (1956). It is replaced by the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims in 2001. The Act is the basic law regarding the domestic violence, and the victims shall be protected by the Act.  I will analyze the protective services for women since the enactment of the Act and clarify the ideas which underlies in the protective services for women. Also mentioned is the new directions in the social welfare policies. Conclusively, ideas embedded in the services lack self-decision and merit-free egalitarianism. The lack in self-decision means negative attitudes toward   women having counter-power against sexual violence. And, the lack in merit-free egalitarianism is passiveness to provide empowerment measures to the victims. Though the laws and the regulations have been changed, such negative ideas have been prevalent.


. Studies of Industrial Relations and the Labor Movement of Shin Nihon Chisso(1)

                          Chair:Atsushi HYODO(Senshu University)

 Coordinator:Akira SUZUKI(Hosei University)

This session is organized to present the results of research activities of Chisso Labor History Research Group (sponsored by the OpenResearchCenter for Minamata Studies, KumamotoGakuenUniversity). The papers to be presented in this session examine industrial relations and the labor movement at Shin Nihon Chisso from the perspectives of the presenters’ own interests.  Previous studies of Chisso tended to focus on issues related to Minamata disease, but few studies took up issues related to industrial relations and the labor movement of the company.  This session aims to fill this gap in the research on Chisso and Minamata disease.


1.On the significance of Chisso’s Anchin dispute(1962-63) in the development of postwar industrial relations

Yoshinori TOMITA(Saga University)

This report takes up problems of Anchin dispute of Chisso company. There are some reasons for studying this labor dispute, (1) its scale (2) its thinly political characteristics. I will explain the indispensable points for studying labor disputes (issues and strategies of labor and management and so on). I will adopt an orthodox method for industrial relations research. I aim at clarifying what industrial relations system was coming into existence in the first half of the1960s, by studying Chisso’s Anchin dispute. Especially, I will explain strategies of management side (National Business Federation, Chemical Industrial Association and Chisso Company), and labor side (National labor center, Industrial union and Chisso Company union). As for shop level industrial relations, I will deal with the composition and strata of manpower, wage management and production management in detail. By taking into what I see, I want to elucidate the constitution of Chisso Company’s management.


2.The Struggle against the Blue-/White-collar Status Distinction and Wage Determination at Shin Nihon Chisso

Masanori HANADA(Kumamoto Gakuen University)

The Shin Nihon Chisso Union had its formative experience in the 53-day strike in 1953 for the abolition of the status distinction between blue- and white-collar workers, because that strike strengthened the union and made it capable of adopting militant policies. The 1953 dispute formed the framework for the union’s subsequent activities such as its confrontation with management over the introduction of stable wage system and its alliance with victims of Minamata disease.  After the 1953 dispute, the status distinction was formally abolished, but its abolition in the real sense had to wait the 1962 Anchin (Stable Wage System) Dispute.  This presentation analyzes the system of blue- and white-collar status distinction and the system of wage determination in detail based on interviews and on archival research.


Two Questions from the Comparative study about the Social Policy Programs of  Colonial Korea    

 Chair:Shen Jie(Japan Women’s University)

Coordinator:Park Kwang Joon(Bukkyo University)

Debater:Masako OTOMO(Chukyo University)

The session raises the two essential questions about the social policy programs implemented by the Japanese Government-General of Korea from the viewpoint of comparative social policy research: (1) Why the social policy for the handicapped in colonial Korea was quite different from that of Taiwan, and (2) Why did the Homeniin System lapse in Korea, while the Japanese system has existed till now. The two paper presentations attempt to clarify the each question.

For the first question, which is relating to the comparative study between different regions, the paper makes explanation why the welfare program for the handicapped of colonial Korea implemented based on the residual welfare model, while that of Taiwan indicated the more institutional education oriented practice. And for the second question, relating the problem why the social policy programs introduce and cease to exist, the paper makes three explanations why the Homeniin System lapsed in Korea.


1.Policy of Special Education in Colonial Korea: Comparison between Korea and Taiwan

Kim Yong Seob(Chosun University)

Social policy programs of the special education for the handicapped in colonial Korea had implemented based on the residual welfare model, and aimed at the residential care instead of the educational development of the handicapped. Saiseiin, the only public institution for the handicapped children had lacked the legal basis, had not developed to the education system for the handicapped untill the Independence of 1945. But in case of Taiwan, the policy had implemented based on the legal principal and supported the more institutional education.

The paper attempts to explain why the Japanese Government-General policy had been indicated the different practice between in Korea and Taiwan.


2.Why did the Homeniin System Lapse in Korea: the Three Explanations

Park Kwang Joon(Bukkyo University)

The Homeniin System combined with the public assistance implemented by the Japanese Government-General of Korea had disappeared just after the nation independence, but the System in Japan has existed till now. The paper attempts to explain about that from the three points of view.

The first explanation concerns that the Honeniin System was originated by the Japanese indigenous culture, the region initiative development and the paternalistic atmosphere of the society, and it was quite different from that of Korea. The second explanation is relating to the personnel of the system, and the Korean members of Homeniin was tended to be defined by the people as the national traitor. And the third one concerns that how the system relevant to the relief of poverty, the original aim of the public assistance. As far as in colonial Korea is concerned, the Homeniin system was irrelevant to the essential function of the poverty relief in colonial Korea.


. Children’s Resiliency against Poverty : based on the research for the care-leavers and in-care staffs

Chair・Coordinator:Takafumi UZUHASHI(Doshisha University)

Debater1:Masako MUROZUMI(Tezukayama Gakuin University)

Debater2:Michihiko TOKORO(Osaka City University)

Though children’s poverty and the notion of poverty-chain have been well-known recently, discussion about how these should be alleviated or unchained is not enough.

This session examines the following issues based on the questionnaires and interview research.

1)  How the self-esteem of care leavers fluctuate in their life course and which factors causes the fluctuation?

2)  What are factors, both objective and subjective, which promote or hinder the steadiness and self-reliance of the care leavers?

3)   How could disadvantage and difficulties facing care leavers be mitigated?


1.A report on the types of supports given to young care-leavers at residential care homes

Hiromi TANAKA(Graduate Student, Doshisha University)

The purpose of our presentation is to introduce the results of a national survey regarding the various supports given to young care-leavers at residential care homes. It will attempt to help us gain a deeper understanding on the types of supports needed by young people after leaving the care homes. First of all, the outline of the survey will be presented, and then the free-writing answers analyzed by the methods of text mining and KJ method will be shown. The results focus especially on the following three aspects that are closely associated with the lives of young care-leavers who leave residential care: the extent to and the ways in which young care-leavers participate in the planning towards their leaving, the issues surrounding the disclosure of the case to the leaver him/herself, and the types of supports given after leaving.


2.Children with Disadvantage and Difficulties and their ‘ Independence ‘ : based on the interviews for in-care staffs

Nobuko MIYATA (Graduate Student, Doshisha University)・Takafumi UZUHASHI(Doshisha University)

Recently more attention has been paid to the ‘self-reliance’ of care leavers and their ‘After-care‘ by the in-care staffs. The background of it is that they have some disadvantages and difficulties in their life-course, which are commonly observed among children of poorer families.

What disadvantages and difficulties would care leavers face? How inter-generational or longitudinal chain of poverty/disadvantages/difficulties would be unchained?  How could ‘the resiliency against poverty’ be defined? What should be provided as a support system, both curative and preventive, for the care leavers?

We attempt to reply to the above research questions based on the in-depth interviews with in-care staffs of 22 residential care homes.


3.Children’s Care Home Analysis Focusing on the Incidents that Caused Uplifting Self Esteem : From the Interview to Care Leavers of Children’s Care Home

Hanako ODAGAWA(Tokyo Metropolitan University)

The research team implemented interviews to the care leavers of children’s care homes in order to clarify what supported them, what helped uplifting self esteem of them and what caused the loss of self esteem of them. The team interviewed to the 8 former residents of children’s care homes, whose age are between 20 and 36.

This study focuses on the incidents that uplifted their self esteem dramatically, which are found on the work sheets showing ups and downs of self esteem in their life course, and discuss the treatments and the circumstances in the care homes. The discussion will be in terms of each three categories; (1) moving into the care home became the turning point. (2) the turning point was during the stay in the care home, and (3) the cases kept being in the loss of self esteem before and during the stay in care home as well as after leaving.


How to Cope with the Business Problem of  “Disposing” Young Adults — The Potential in Social Networking(1)

Chair・Coordinator:Yoko TANAKA(University of Tsukuba)

Debater:Mitsuko UENISHI(Hosei University)

The problem of “Evil Company” in Japan has come to catch a great deal of attention. Not only was it selected as the buzzword of the year 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare has decided to carry on a countermeasure to those skeptical companies that may be disposing young adults. The new movement has expanded through the development of “Monthly Labor Focused Supervision,” to carry out intensive supervision and guidance, and to implement telephone consultation nationwide. The existence of problems like long work hours, unpaid overtime, and harassment are often overlooked as a way of Japanese customs, unless the death or the suicide occurs. However, these issues were somewhat accepted throughout the history as a part of Japanese employment system, in return of long stable employment. As a result, the degree of evilness in these companies increased with the instability and changes in current employment system. Here, I would like to suggest the outlook of possible future policies to approach issues to companies that dispose young adults through understanding structural problems by collecting the voices from the actual scenes.


1.POSSE’s approach concerning evil companies


NPO POSSE has been transmitting their analysis and situations in employment policies through the publication of magazine “POSSE,” along with the work consultation service. The magazine featured the issue of evil companies in early 2010 and since then, they have questioned and discussed on policies and interviewed members of political party to raise the concern to public.

The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare is now implementing measurements to work on evil companies issues since last year. With the common movement to extend the measurement on these conditions, organizations such as POSSE and Union, and professional researchers have started to work together to build the project to control the evil companies. Through the creation of this project, they are providing general support of comprehensive consultations and recommending counter measurement policies. Hereafter, POSSE plans to include educational institutions such as high schools and universities, and in fields like welfare, medical, and government agencies as well to all work together. The goal of this report is to share activities and address the challenges for the future.


2.Lawyer’s approach concerning evil companies

Chikara SHIMASAKI(Kanagawa Sogo Law Office)

Black business damage control defense team was established in July 31, 2013 in order to rescue the victims of the so-called “Evil Company” and to exterminate the damage. Currently, over 200 lawyers in Japan participate as a member, and they hold seminars and writes books, on top of consultation and litigation activities.

On the other hand, victims of evil company often have variety of problems such as anxiety and life mental disorders that they require mental care and support on daily living activities, beyond the infringement of labor law. In addition, cooperation with various fields of exports is necessary to exterminate the damage. Therefore, for the counter-measurement to rescue victims and to eradicate the companies, it is essential to advance the efforts together with experts in various fields, not only by lawyers, but also with unions, researchers, NPOs, and human resources consultants. And as a lawyer, they participate in evil company prevention projects, seminars, and conduct consultation serves o spread the awareness to public.

  Here, I will present the report of lawyers of “evil company” relief efforts.


3.Union’s approach concerning evil companies

Akai JINBU(Metropol Labor Union of Youth)

Out of the top 100 companies in sales of the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange listed company, about 70% of workers are made to work overtime in excess hours of 80 hours per month, which is considered over the death line. Japanese companies are hiring young adults with a mind to kill them. Today, the young adults are faced with two ultimate options: to either live with overworking condition or to live with unstable poverty condition. One in three workers, or one in two workers in case of women, are forced to work in unstable conditions. Oddly, there is too much work to kill a worker from overwork, but not enough work available to create suicide.

In case of many young adults, they work under the violation of labor law, and they are not aware of its illegal situations. Even with the mind of legal knowledge, they are still powerless. Only then, the union has the power to take preventative actions among the workplace. The labor laws are effective after the membership in the union. There is only the labor union, which holds enough power to repel and exploit the situation within companies.

A full-time worker at a major convenient store company does not have household goods of all in preparation for the dismissal of the course. The worker prepares to be fired from the job. Young adults today are employed under the abnormal conditions, and their lives are threatened.


Studies of Industrial Relations and the Labor Movement of Shin Nihon Chisso2                                                   

   Chair:Atsushi HYODO(Senshu University)

Coordinator:Akira SUZUKI(Hosei University)


1.The Transformation of Chemical Industry in postwar Japan and its Impact on Chisso and its labor union

Akinori ISOGAI(Kyushu University)

This presentation examines industrial relations at Chisso Minamata Plant from the macro context of the rapid growth of the Japanese economy from the 1950s to the mid-1960s, and from the mezzo context of the history of chemical industry.  Production technologies of Japan’s chemical industry experienced a drastic shift from those based on electrochemical/coalchemical technologies to those based on a petrochemical technology from the 1950s to the mid-1960s.  The presentation first examines decisions made by Chisso’s top management in the context of the drastic shift and shows that top managers made poor and short-sighted judgments.  Second, it shows that the reasons for the poor/short-sighted judgments lay not only in strategic mistakes of top managers, but also in the entrenched production system of Minamata Plant.  Because of the poor judgments, Chisso made a shift to petrochemical technology much later than its competitors.  And the presentation then argues that the belated shift to the new technology promoted Chisso management to hastily engage in rationalization measures, which in turn constituted one of the causes of the 1962 labor dispute.


2.Analysis of the coalition building between the Shin Nihon Chisso Labor Union and the organizations of Minamata disease victims and their supporters

Akira SUZUKI(Hosei University)

The paper examines how the Shin Nihon Chisso Labor Union formed coalitions with the organizations of Minamata disease victims and their supporters after the union’s “Declaration of Shame” in 1968.  It analyses the nature of the relationship between the SNU and its social movement allies and what kinds of activities the union-social movement coalitions engaged in.  It also locates the SNU’s activities in the contexts of industrial relations at Chisso (e.g., the inter-union rivalry between the SNU and the pro-management “new Chisso union” [formed during the labor dispute in 1962], and personnel policies that discriminated members of the SNU in favor of those of the new union) as well as in the contexts of the development of civil society at large, especially, nation-wide upsurge of anti-pollution movements.


10The Employment policies for the disabled persons in France, Sweden, Denmark and Japan towards the best mix between integration policies and compensation policies for the disabled persons

Chair・Coordinator:Katsuhiko IWATA(The Japan Institute for Labor policy and Training)

Debater:Ryosuke MATSUI(Hosei University・Emeritus Professor)

OECD measures disability policy orientation across OECD countries by using two disability policy indicators – the first covers compensation measures or benefit programs, and the second integration or employment measures (“Sickness, Disability and Work – Breaking the Barriers”(2010)).

Let us compare the disability policy in France, Sweden, Denmark and Japan. All four countries are making policy shift from disability assessment to work-capacity assessment. But there is significant variation across countries in policy direction. Denmark and Japan have stronger integration orientations. Sweden has a little stronger compensation orientations. France stands in between. Denmark and Sweden get high scores on both policy dimensions.

Should Japan present the income security of the people with disabilities through employment or through income payment schemes? What is the best policy mix between employment promotion to the open labor market and sheltered employment ?  We will tackle such challenges in Japan at this working session through the comparison with the disability policies in France, Sweden, Denmark whose compensation measures seem more generous than Japan.


1.2013 Disability policy reforms in Denmark in the context of Danish flexicurity

 Katsuhiko IWATA(The Japan Institute for Labor policy and Training)

Danish flexjob scheme has created many jobs (50,000 persons in 2012) with permanent wage subsidy of 50% or 65% on special terms for the people with disability who cannot obtain jobs on normal terms and conditions. Disability pension could be given to people between the age of 18 and 65 whose ability to work is permanently reduced. The reduction must be significant enough to prevent the relevant person from supporting himself by gainful employment including flexjob. The amounts of wage subsidy of flex-job and disability pension were very generous as a part of Danish well-known flexicurity approach.

Since the beginning of 2013 the far-reaching reforms of these scheme has been implemented. (1)The people with disability under 40 of age will not have access to disability pension , but will receive an individual and coherent support including flexjob in a resource clarification program.

 (2) The employers pay wages corresponding to the employees’ actual working hours and the municipalities pay subsidies to the employees (previously the employers) to cover the remaining hours. The two flexjob options (half and two-thirds of work incapacity loss) are replaced by a gradual system allowing any weekly working hours. Actual income will increase with working hours and those with the lowest wage will get the largest subsidy.

On this presentation the reporter will discuss the reform’s implications including the effect on the people with disability in Denmark and Danish flexicurity approach.


2.Revision and new orientation of labor market policies for the people with disabilities

Noriko KURUBE(Nihon Fukushi University)

The Swedish disability policy is characterized by a social policy based on a universal social citizenship and an active labor market policy. Measures to help people with disabilities are therefore an important part of the Government’s strategy for the implementation of the disability policy. Employment with subsidized wage and employment at Samhall AB have been the Swedish main employment measures for people with severe disabilities.

In 2012, the Inquiry for the revision of the labor market policies for the people with disabilities presented its comprehensive proposal on how labor market policy measures should be designed to effectively contribute to improving the prospects for people with disabilities to find and maintain employment. The Inquiry pointed out the importance of a shift from sheltered activities to an inclusive working life in the regular labor market (mainstreaming). In the proposal, so called “supported employment” is focused on as a new method, which has received a great deal of attention in recent years both in Sweden and abroad. The two main objectives of the proposal aims for “development” and “security”: 1) subsidized wages for development for those who need tailored work and different types of developmental initiatives, and 2) subsidized wages for security for those who have reduced work capacity and needs for the long-term support. The new guideline is that an individual’s work capacity and needs determine the amount of support, which should also be applied to employment at Samhall AB. Sweden is trying to streamline the previous labor market policy for the people with disabilities without losing the generous principle.


3.New law on the equality of rights and chances for disabled persons as citizen(2005) and Labor policy

Hiroshi OHSONE(The Open University of Japan)

In France, the framework of the policy for disabled persons has changed much by ” Loi pour l’égalité des droits et des chances, la participation et la citoyennete des personnes handicapées :Law for the equality of rights and opportunities, participation and the citizenship of the diabled persons” passed in 2005.

By the law, the disability quota system has advanced and the working place for disabled people [the home labor supply center (CDTD) and labor support and service institution (ESAT)  and the protected company (EA)] have changed.

On the social welfare payment side, the compensation system (PCA) was established by the new foundation (CNSA) linking the minimum wages.  And the committees on rights and independence for disabled persons (CDAPH) was carried out, and the prefectural center for disabled persons (MDPH) as the consultation center of one stop window.

Here, standing on the influence of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, I will explain the recent trends in France to correspondence with the idea of International Convention. And I will tell about the relations between the equality and the protective working systems in France. Finally I will say on the implication to Japan.


11How to Cope with the Business Problem of  “Disposing” Young Adults — The Potential in Social Networking(2)

Chair・Coordinator:Yoko TANAKA(University of Tsukuba)

Debater:Mitsuko UENISHI(Hosei University)


General Sessions(abstract) (SSSP 128th Biannual Conference)


1 Children and Family

1.An Influence of Self-help Groups of Single-mother Families on the Political Process in Japan –In the case of Welfare Reform in 2000s

  Sae OKURA(Graduate Student, University of Tsukuba)

This paper describes the conditions in which self-help groups of single-mother families are able to influence politics effectively in Japan. Especially, the paper focuses on three main groups (Zenkoku boshi kafu Fukushidantai kyogikai, Single mothers forum, Wink) as cases, and compares the political processes of (a)the case of 2002, in which the groups “failed” to prevent cuts in welfare, and (b)the case of 2008, in which they successfully prevented the reduction of  the child-rearing allowance. The comparison reveals that the stance of the biggest self-help group (zenboshikyo) affected the results. The power is based on the resources, especially networking among parties. Zenboshikyo, when has a have strong network among the ruling parties, has more influence, and others, which have networks mainly among the opposition parties, have only limited influence. Specifically, a main factor that led to the prevention of welfare cuts in 2008 is that Zennboshikyo, who did not request big amendments in 2002, lobbied the ministry and the government through the LDP (Boshi kafu fukushi taisaku giin renmei).


2.Germany’s new family policy and the “Mehrgenerationenhaus” project

Yurina UEDA(Graduate Student, Doshisha University)

In Germany, the significance of the attempt to support the family and individuals by all factions of society including geographical regions, companies, and nonprofit organizations has been recognized. This has been acknowledged in the “sustainable family politics” of “The Seventh Family Report, 2006,” which deals with the diversification of families and changes in roles. The necessity of a “family-friendly society” has also been highlighted, and progress has been made toward the achievement of this.

In this report, in response to these policies, I primarily discuss activities related to “Mehrgenerationenhäuser” that have been supported since 2007 by the Federal Ministry of Family and European Social Fund. These activities aim to promote a multigenerational interchange that is difficult to attain in nuclear families, various comprehensive multigenerational services, and the participation of citizens in activities such as housework, childcare, nursing care, and volunteer work. Based on the 2008 governmental report on activities of “Mehrgenerationenhäuser” and my own fieldwork, I clarify the actual status of activities and analyze the challenge and problems facing society concerning participation and feelings of solidarity.


3.Child well-being in rich countries-UNICEF Innocenti Report Card11: Comparing Japan

Junko TAKEZAWA(National Institute of Population and Social Security Research)

UNICEF Office of Research has published Report Card series since 2000, focusing on the well-being of children in industrialized countries. Each Report Card includes a league table ranking the countries of the OECD.

In the original report(UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 11, April 2013), Japan was not included in the league table of child well-being because data on a number of indicators were missing.

Using national data sources from Japan and matching it carefully with the data used in the original Report Card 11, Aya Abe (IPSS) and Junko Takezawa (IPSS) managed this report to include Japan in the league table and subsequent ranking in each of five dimensions in order to assess Japan’s performance in child well-being among developed countries.

Japan’s overall ranking is 6th among the 31 countries. ‘Education’ and ‘Behaviors and risks’ dimensions are ranking 1st, but ‘Material well-being’ is ranking in the bottom third of countries. Japan’s poor performance in ‘Material well-being’ is puzzling given the excellent performance in ‘Education’ and ‘Behaviors and risks’ dimensions.


2 Labor Market

1.A Self-support Program and Current Status of labor market in South Korea   -Focusing on nursing worker training program

Yuki TOMOOKA(Graduate Student, Ewha Womans University)

Since the economic crisis in 1998, the expanded government’s policy on poverty in Korea has been focusing on protecting the elderly or the disabled who have no ability to support themselves, as well as helping people in the low income group who has difficult time in exiting from poverty. It is so-called Self-Support Program that aims for workfare scheme.

The Self-Support Program started in 2000 when the National Basic Livelihood Security Act was enforced. The goal of Self-Support Program is to give empowerment to low income group by offering education and work training. The program provides work opportunity for those on low incomes by connecting with government employment projects or social enterprise programs, and offers a variety of services that helps them become economically self-sufficient. However, evaluating the effectiveness of policy shows inclination toward one-sided evaluation, such as the number of job creation or exit rate from assistance. Thus, inadequacy of policy evaluation has been pointed out.

In this paper, I focus on the nursing worker’s training program that is one of the core training program in Self-Support Program. I analyze the working conditions of nursing workers with long working time and low wage in the informal sector, and make a comparison about the labor environment between workers from normal labor market and policy-supported workers. Finally, I consider the problems and results of the Self-Support Program in Korea.


2.To what extent is the occupational labor market of professionals formed?: comparing skill formation of IT engineers, scientific researcher and medical professional

Takeshi NISHIMURA(Graduate Student, Kyoto University)

Because the use of human resources out of enterprises tends to increase, it is said that occupational labor markets, especially of professionals, should be adjusted. The index that measures how occupational labor markets are formed is consisted of three parts: mobility in labor markets, horizontal wage system across enterprises and qualifying system of occupational knowledge and skill. By combining these three factors successfully, occupational labor markets of professionals will be achieved. Of these three factors, in this presentation we focus on analyzing how occupational qualifying systems are introduced and evaluate whether these systems are serving as main actors in workers’ occupational skill formation. In addition, we are going to compare the result with workers’ feeling how their skill can be used across enterprises.


3 Social Solidarity and Social Inclusion

1.Spatiotemporal Articulation as Foundations for Social Solidarity

Satoshi TAKAHASHI(Iwate Prefectural University)

Approaches that aim to create foundations for social solidarity are typically based on either the commonalities among constituent members or the benefits accruing from such solidarity. These requirements, however, are difficult to achieve because social solidarity is inherently an exercise in “cooperation premised on differences.” Some form of equilibrium is necessary to structure institutions based on subjective agreement, but social policy and the welfare state must be premised on differences in temporal and spatial positions.

We define the above idea as “spatiotemporal articulation” and present a systematic discussion of the various types of policies that further this idea. “Articulation” in this context refers not to eliminating distance, but to bridging Institutional differences.

We broadly categorize spatiotemporal articulation into microarticulations and macroarticulations. We argue that microarticulations can be systematized from the perspective of stock-oriented policies and investments in human capital and social capital, and that macroarticulations can be systematized from the perspective of policies designed to reconstruct social contracts. We also touch on an overall vision for establishing policies that encompass both of these areas.


2.Social Inclusion for Immigrants and Refugees through Microfinance

Takashi KOSEKI(Meiji University)

This report aims to clarify the role of social inclusion for immigrants and refugees that microfinance plays in the US.The author conducted interviews with microfinance institutions (MFIs) program officers in New York and Washington, D.C.

Racial minorities have disadvantage in educational attainment and employment (NCRC, 2004; Robb et al., 2009; Rubin, 2011). However, not only race but also immigration status can affect the extent of social exclusion.  Immigrants and refugees who recently came to a new country are not likely to have sufficient literacy on legal regulation and financial system.

MFIs provide loans, savings, financial literacy education, English language and business support to help them become economically independent (FIELD, 2012). MFI sector has grown from 1990s in the US under Clinton Administration (Bhatt et al., 2002). MFIs play key roles of social inclusion for immigrants and refugees in the US.


3.South Korean Social Enterprise: Change of Meaning or Extension of the Domain?―Emergence of a New Social Enterprise Policy―

  Hong Sungwook(Graduate Student, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

Social Enterprise (SE) Promotion Act in South Korea is the policy that prioritized job security rather than social security and the intent of the act has been widely accepted by the Korean society. However, it has been continuously criticized because there were weaknesses of top-down approach, i.e. the act regularized certification requirements and business types. Therefore, there are demands for a debate on the concept of ‘social economy’ as a broader sense.

‘Social Economy Research Forum (SERF)’ which consists of the members of Korean National Assembly proposed ‘Special Law of Purchase Promotion and Market Support for Social Economy Enterprise’ in December 2013. This proposal paid attention on the debate for the wider meaning of social economy, while it concentrated to make preferential purchasing of public institutions sound functioning by designating ‘Social Economy Enterprise (SEE)’ that includes co-operatives and self-sufficiency businesses, etc.

This research will analyze 1) what changes the policy debate of SEE have brought for the concept of SE and 2) how the changes have defined the realm of ‘Social Economy’ through interviews with policy makers and hands-on staffs.


4 Labor Movement and History

1.NGG(the German Food, Beverages and Catering Union) and Minimum Wage Regulation

Takuya IWASA(Kobe University)

Germany has no statutory minimum wage (its introduction is planned from 2015). This is a result of contribution of collective bargaining agreement regarding minimum wage regulation. But with low-wage sector increasing in Germany since the 1990s, demand to introduce statutory minimum wage has become stronger. NGG has played leading role in promoting it. These trends show a change of function of German collective bargaining system and trade unions are also required to change.

First, this paper analyses low-wage work and industrial relations in sector of hotel, restaurant and catering and sector of meat industry. NGG is competent to both sections. Second, this paper analyses concrete development of movement which demands statutory minimum wage. Finally, it analyses tensions between such movement and collective bargaining of NGG.


2.Labor Oral History Archive Project – A focus on making film records and the availability of documents

Osamu UMEZAKI(Hosei University)

This paper discusses various ways of saving and making accessible oral history records based on our practical experience in this area. Throughout the field of historical research, many researchers have adopted oral history techniques in recent years. In some countries, principally the US and the UK, oral history centers have gathered a large volume of records that had previously been held by individuals. These records are maintained for the future and are made accessible to both researchers and the interested public upon request. The situation is very different in Japan, where the archiving of records is has not progressed and where records are still held and maintained by individual researchers. This paper outlines the issues we have encountered whilst working on the oral history archive project in collaboration with the L-library in Osaka. In particular we look at the importance for researchers of film recording of interviews and the challenges that come with this technique. Finally, we discuss the potential effects on labor researchers and labor education of maintaining oral history records in the same location as written documents. The purpose of this paper is to explore both our experience of creating the oral history archive and the research possibilities it might offer.



5 Care and Medical Treatment

1.”The Appropriate use of drug “ in the drug policy after 1992

 Kazuko AKAGI(Graduate Student, Hitotsubashi University)

The appropriate use of drug has been recommended in the final report of the “Council of the way of drug in the 21st century”,  which were held between October 1992 to May 1993 by Ministry of Health and Welfare.

The following can be considered as the background:

Increase of medicines which have strong pharmacological activity and complicated usages, by the advancement of technology development. Accompanying aging societies, people visit plural departments of hospitals, they have complication diagnosis and they take plural kind of medicines. Furthermore, people interest increase in quality of medical care.

It is not clear what is appropriate, however. Appropriate use of drug can mean proper amount, proper using, proper quality of medicine, the fair distribution for the people, or appropriate information.

In this paper, based on them, I analyzed by policy-historical approach about that the idea of this appropriate had given what effect on and perception in the policy since 1992. I also want to consider the relationship between the rational use of drugs that was proposed by the WHO. I want to clarify the issues and meanings of using appropriate medicaments for protecting the health of the people.


2.Non Profit Organization’s Strategies on the Original Home Help Services

Sumika YAMANE(Yamagata University)

The original home help services by the NPOs have drawn attention as the services which meet the needs of elderly outsides of Long-Term Care Insurance rubric, while the government has gradually reduced the amount of the home help service for each user. This paper investigates NPO’s practice about their original services and the position of the NPOs in the care service market, based on the analysis of the data from 12 in-depth interviews with care workers and a questionnaire survey of 34 NPOs. Findings are Follows: First the care workers are content with the work on the original services since they can have good relationship with the service users. Second, they regard original services as “care assistances for independent,” not as the services which is suited for woman who play it by ear, therefore they approve the policy to deliver homogeneous quality of service among the care workers and to limit the service contents. Third, they negotiate with the care managers of the local area who want to use the NPO’s original services at a low price. NPOs have changed the contents and the meaning of the original services to balance the ideal of “need-centered” and the business management.


3.The process and problems of long-term care benefits complicated

Takashi MIHARA(The Tokyo Foundation)・Atsuaki GUNJI(The Tokyo Foundation)

The Japanese Long-term Care Insurance System adopts basically itemized fee-for-service payment system. The number of items and the logic are consistently increasing the complexity in every revision of the system. The number of items was 1760 at the outset of the system but that in 2012 marked up to 20,929. The reason of this will be well explained by the conflict model proposed as the theory for understanding the system of the industrial relation. The government (MHL) who is placed under the pressure (input) from the organizations of the industry towards increasing economic reward and others towards decreasing the security cost and so forth, tries to solve the conflict by forging new rules (output).

If this trend is inevitable, it entails that the citizen will face more and more difficulty to understand the system and participate the democratic process to improve the system that is closely related to their daily life. This will bring about a blight of democracy of this country.


 Welfare States

1.Socio-economic issues in Hong Kong: current situation of ‘positive non-interventionism’

Katsuhide ISA(Seinan Gakuin University)

This paper introduces and investigates socio-economic issues in Hong Kong, based on its recent situations. Hong Kong is well Known for its ‘free economy’ policy and it is legally guaranteed Hong Kong can keep its autonomy as a free economy city for 50 years after the handover, including the retention of socio-economic institutions inherited from the era of British rules. Because Hong Kong has sticked to the principle of ‘positive non-interventionism’ for long periods, legal institutions for worker protection and social security have not been well developed. Consequently, economic inequality in Hong Kong, for example, has been at a high level. On the other hand, Hong Kong has seen rapid population aging like other advanced nations and regions. That has caused the number of the needy elderly to increase, which has become a serious social issue and forced Hong Kong government to modify its ‘free economy’ ideology gradually. Given these trends, this paper aims to clarify the socio-economic characteristics and their future visions of Hong Kong through comparison with other nations and regions, especially mainland China.


2.Sovereign Debt Crises and Social Spending – How did European Countries Cope with the Crises?

Yoshinori ITO(Hitotsubashi University)

In European countries, budget deficits soared in 2009 due to the global recession triggered by the 2008 financial crisis. In particular, Greece, Portugal, and some countries plunged into sovereign debt crises and received bailouts by the EU and IMF. In this situation, as a result of austerity measures taken for deficit reduction, the ratio of social spending to GDP decreased in most EU countries. However, the details and extent of suppression differed across countries; further, some of the austerity measures are not temporary. It is presumed that besides the unique financial conditions in each country, the structure of the welfare system, political situation, and other factors too yielded these differences. This study explores the possibility that the crises affected the characteristics of welfare states, by comparatively analysing post-crises changes in social spending and their backgrounds in EU countries, hoping to derive implications on coping with such crises.