Previoues Entries

Previoues Entries

Archive : 8,2014

General Sessions (abstract), JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


Vocational Training


1.The effect of public vocational training on carrying out self-development , retention of workplace and wage


Guangjie LU(Graduate student ,Osaka City University)


Although achieving high employment rate is so important to public vocational training schools for the unemployed , trainee’s retention of workplace and wage are also significant . In addition , public vocational training schools should have trainees understand the importance of self-development. The reason is that small-and medium-sized enterprises in Japan don’t actively provide their employees trainings . So employees have to rely on self-development to improve the level of skills by which they can escape from poverty and improve their employability .

The paper focuses on trainee’s self-development, retention of workplace in one year after their graduation and wants to suggest what the public vocational training schools should do for providing better training.


2.The Position of Public Human Resources Development According to the Employment Status Survey


Nami OYA(Aomori Public University)


Securing and nurturing human resources is essential to the maintenance and development of regional economies. For example, calculations using prefectural data reveal a positive correlation between regional production volumes and an increase in technical experts who constitute the core of the enterprise. Although in-house training for employees is considered important in nurturing such technical experts, it has been observed that small businesses are shifting from on-the-job training (OJT) to off-the-job training (off-JT) and are tending to overemphasize outsourcing. Moreover, corporate expenses for training are on the decline. In the midst of this, one can say that public human resources development has an important position as a means to nurture human resources, especially for regions with few private education and training organizations. This study explores the demand for vocational training by analyzing public data from the Employment Status Survey for each prefecture, along with data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Human Resources Development. In particular, regarding public human resources development, the study examines which regions and age groups are demanding these services and investigates the role these services play in regional economies.


  Service Provider


1.Who is a landlord of privately-rent housing? ――as a condition for public housing subsidy


Kazuhiro SATO(Graduate Student, The University of Tokyo)


This study shows the findings from the interview conducted by the presenter to landlords of privately-rented housing. At present, housing policy in Japan is shrinking and it is placing disproportionate weight on subsidy to the tenants. Considering this current situation, this report reveals the conditions of landlords as a key player in implementing policies that could be an incentive for the supply side of housing. This study found that first, because landlords’ social status varies and that their identity as a landlord is unstable in society, a housing subsidy that takes these peculiar conditions of landlords into consideration are required. Secondly, there is a need for reconsideration of what has been suggested by previous studies, that landlords should continue their business even if it does not achieve profit target. In this regard, the structure of housing supply needs to be studied further. Lastly, housing policy needs to be implemented in conjunction with land regulation and urban designing because these policies are known to affect landlords’ action.


2.A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Non-profit and For-profit Home Care Services Providers


Nobuko KNAYA(Hiroshima City University)


With the emergence of a quasi-market for long-term care services (LTCS) for the elderly, various non-profit and for-profit providers have started to offer such services. New providers have become particularly prevalent in home care services: in 2012, for-profit companies, medical corporations, and non-profit organizations comprised 59%, 7%, and 6% of home care services providers, respectively. The market share of existing providers, such as social welfare corporations, has decreased.

Because their missions and goals are not the same, it may be that non-profit and for-profit providers in the LTCS market differ in behavior and performance. However, few studies have explored the actual conditions of this quasi-market. Thus, based on the data published by the care service information system, this study examines differences in performance between providers according to business scale and contents, staff, and user characteristics. The primary aims of this study are 1) to examine the possibility of cream skimming and 2) to investigate the provision of services by informal, rather than formal, LTCS providers.


3 Industrial Relations


1.Japanese Employment System and a Policy of Equal Pay for Equal Jobs


Katsuhiko IWATA(National Institute for Educational Policy Research)


In Japan the human resource development within the enterprise is at the core of career development of people, and training in corporation connects with their performance-based pay system. During training period their pay exceed their labor productivity of added value , so sometime after this period companies intend to earn back their investment from their employees’ service. In these context realizing the policy of equal pay for equal jobs swiftly is so difficult.The way to get close to the world of equal pay for equal jobs step by step through the following policies will be appropriate.

Firstly by shortening the period of intense corporate training and by hastening to earn back companies’ investment ,the employees’ wage level after 40 year will be matched up with their productivity. Secondly “ limited regular employees”, who would be limited in the types of duties they could perform, work locations and working hours, should be increased. Thirdly work-life balance of regular employees should be actively promoted. Fourthly the visualization of vocational capability should be driven forward.


2.Redefinition of the industrial relations system in the U.S. and its suggestion to Japan.


Ken YAMAZAKI(The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)


From the 1990s, the number of new labor organizations which coordinate interests of the plural actors by the round table increases in the US. There is a movement of reinterpretation of National Labor Relations Act which gave a permission of the collective bargaining for a labor union which could get majority vote from a bargaining unit employee. The cooperation between Labor unions and new labor organizationsalso progress. Under these circumstances, I would like to examine the situation of the U.S.industrial relations system from the viewpoint of mutual aid, advocacy and policy requirement known as a requirement of a trade union, and also vocational training, adjustment of the interest of the actors in the community.

The industrial relations study in Japan might often consider the relation between labor union and management in the U.S. rigid for accepting labor management cooperation, or in the context of the social unionism. The redefinition of the U.S. industrial relations system is wider than the range considered in Japan. I would also like to examine a problem and the suggestion for the future industrial relations system in Japanthoroughconsidering the U.S. industrial relations system.


3.The alien immigrants and the labour restriction in Britain from the late 19th to early 20th century: referring to S. &. B. Webb’s studies on sweating.


Shotaro SAITO(Graduate Student,Tokyo University)


In Britain from the late 19th to early 20th century, the influx of destitute alien immigrants from eastern Europe caused the various ‘Alien Problems’, and the immigrants were restricted under the Aliens Act 1905. Many of the immigrants were occupied in the sweated trades such as the tailors and shoemakers, and submitted to the inferior condition of low wage, long hour and insanitary, the sweating was the core of the ‘Alien Problems’. Sidney and Beatrice Webb studied the sweating-system, and raised the concept of ‘National Minimum’ in their book “Industrial Democracy”. Although it is said that they regarded the women labourers more importantly than the aliens immigrants as the factor of sweating, Beatrice Webb had interest in the ‘Jewish community’. Now, how did they analyse the alienimmigrants? In this presentation, I will refer to mainly Webb’s sweating studies, and examine that the labour restriction such as the minimum wage could substitute the immigration restriction.


4 Poverty 


1.Estimation of Number of Socially Isolated Persons and Analysis of Causes for Isolation


Aya ABE(National Institute of Population & Social Security Research)


Especially after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake, there is much talk of the importance of social connection (Kizuna), yet, news and documentaries of ‘social isolation’ have been in the media for some time in Japan. In the poverty studies, the connection between social isolation and poverty has always been noted, yet there has not been much research on the extent of social isolation in Japan or the causes of social isolation as it relates to poverty.

This paper presents the results of “the Survey of Kizuna and Social Services” conducted by the Cabinet Office and is organized by the presenter.  It captures about 5.5 thousand people aged from 20 to 59, and it explores the causes of social isolation as well as estimation of the number of socially isolated in Japan.


2.The analysis of the middle-aged unemployment and the situation of living-hardship


Chiharu NISHIGAKI(Kobe Gakuin University)・Yuko TAMIYA (Kobe Gakuin University)


According to the labor investigation, unemployment rate has been improving after 2010. However, there is still much unemployment with 2,540,000 people (April, 2014), so further improvement is urgent need. Particularly for the middle-aged unemployment there is hard situation that it is difficult to get the chance for reemployment, even though non-regular job.

This study is intended to clarify the cause of unemployment among the middle-aged, and to show the direction of countermeasures. The analysis was carried out through consultation record data of 56 people who can see the reason of unemployment who had the support   with financial assistance in fiscal year 2013 in the rescue program for the people with living-hardship in Osaka. 30 people (54%) had led to unemployment, even though they had the regular job. As for the reason of unemployment, “Illness” occupied half.

It was clarified that unemployment in middle-aged brings the problems of poverty and low income,  what is worse,  if it is caused by health problem such as their illness or care of the family, there is no way to live except being on welfare.


3.A study on public assistance bashing through an analysis of internet surveys


Soshiro YAMADA(Nihon Fukushi University)


In recent years, negative discourse on public assistance has been disseminated through the media. This public assistance bashing has some effect on policy trends, with occurrences including lowering public assistance benefit levels, a revision of the Public Assistance Act and so forth. Some of these discourses are based on inaccurate information. It is, therefore, important to analyze civic awareness regarding public assistance.

This study analyzed the results of an awareness survey on public assistance conducted in May, 2014. The survey was conducted through the Internet, and 1,618 valid responses were obtained. The results are as follows. (1) Lower public assistance benefit levels and an enhancement of duty to support families are not approved in relative terms with regard to issues related to public assistance. (2) Respondents in lower income groups are more sympathetic toward maintaining public assistance levels than higher income groups. (3) Respondents who estimate that the proportion of dishonest recipients is high have feelings of strong resistance toward the entire range of issues related to public assistance.


5 Welfare for the Elderly


1.Rethinking Family Care Support Policies and the Promotion of Comprehensive Community-based Care: Focus on Projects of Municipalities in Tokyo


Izumi KIKUCHI(Japan College of Social Work)


Elderly care policy expanded under long-term care insurance system which has been marketing the services; and its sustainability up to 2025 has been questioned with the aim of constructing comprehensive community-based care system just when baby boomers become 75 years old or older.

But so far specific measures and effectiveness is still uncertain, and conceptualization is jumping to conclusions ahead of post -“socialization of care”. Among them, what to do to support family caregivers has not been sufficiently discussed up to now and has been left aside.

This report discusses the current conditions and issues of family care support policies,taking into consideration the reorganization process of the elderly health & welfare policies in recent years to promote comprehensive community-based care; and in doing so, focusing on the transformation of the role of the municipality, which is the entity responsible as insurers in long-term care insurance system at the same time.

And it focuses on the case in metropolitan areas, where it is urgently necessary to develop long-term care service infrastructure owing to rapid population aging. As a concrete method of study, this report uses the results of the questionnaire survey on projects for family care support conducted for municipalities in Tokyo.


2.The Business Development of The Provision of Social Care Service by Elderly Consumer Cooperatives in Japan


Yurie KUMAKURA(Meiji University)


On the occasion of the creation of the Long-term Care Insurance System in 2000 in Japan, the provision of elderly care services by a multiple of actors was required to expand the service. Consumer cooperatives were one of the actors for which the health and welfare minister of that time made expectation. Followed by this, not only existing consumer cooperatives but also those set up after the system started have developed elderly care services. However, the government’s expectation was that cooperatives would provide services as a kind of mutual assistance that is without the thought of profit. And there is a fear that the cooperatives will have to shoulder the burden of supplementing the public system. However there has been insufficient study to draw conclusions on the current condition of these efforts.

This report will present the case study of a consumer cooperative as the basis for considering the implications of elderly care service provision by cooperatives in combination with the system. The surveyed organization is a local consumer cooperative that is one of the “Elderly Consumer Cooperatives” which have developed in 23 prefectures. The case study will consider their business development.


3.Actual situation and the issues addressed caregiving the home helper : Consideration from Interview conducted in home help visit site


Yukihiro TAKAHASHI(Tezukayama University)


QOL of the user needs to be emphasized in the elderly care. But it has not been studied enough about the user dying care staff.Death were those close to the everyday life. Results of life-sustaining treatment is emphasized along with the progress in medicine in the background, also the proportion of hospital deaths exceeds than home death since 1977, and has an object got away from home.On the other hand, the text of training for care staff, only a small description had not been made on how to support families and the user is near death.I conducted interviews in order for care – giving in the home care field, and to consider what the actual situation and challenges.The findings, from the fact that you are providing care on the assumption that users will stay alive, there is anxiety and confusion when was asked to help care – giving from their families and user care staff.So, I want to organize what kind of challenges to care – giving in the home care field.


6 Thoughts and Ideas


1.Economic Idea of Cameron Government’s ‘the Big Society’ Agenda: In Restructuring Process of British Welfare State


Yasuhisa HIRAKATA(Kyushu Sangyo University)


In this paper, I will examine the Cameron government’s ‘the Big Society’ agenda and try to evaluate its meaning in the restructuring process of British welfare state. In Britain public sector reform, government tried first to introduce market competition or implement privatization in the 1980s, and then to improve accountability in the 1990s. However, in the Big Society speech, he stressed the role of active citizens, in addition to the size and role of a government. Although it caused criticism for trying to cut off welfare, it could be said a response to people’s various needs. Cameron seemed to spell out his own idea that was different from Thatcherism and New Labour. I will summarize this development and try to draw some conclusion.


2.Eugenics and Social Policy in Japan


Satoshi YANO(Nihon University)


Modern Japan Social(welfare) policy has been greatly influenced by the social welfare thought of America and the United Kingdom, and Scandinavian. But the first half of the 20th century, these countries was actively incorporating the eugenic policy represented by a sterilization laws. Mental illness, recessive inheritance, and “leprosy patient”, in the name of sterilization method, have been deprived the “right to inherit the seed” by the hand of person, which is the most basic rights as a human being. People who once were the subject of sterilization method is now the subject to be protected and leading field of social policy. Why the Idea of ​​eugenics that significant loss of human dignity is survived until the second half of the 20th century. How we should be understood the conflict and the context of the social policy and eugenics. I would like to be analyzed in light practices of Fabian socialism in the UK sterilization policy America, the German NATIS, the concept of eugenics Nordic the relationship between eugenics in social policy of our country, to extract its features.


3.Sweden’s Welfare and Education Budget System: From the Viewpoint of De-familialization


Yorimitsu OOKA(Chukyo University)


Many studies have used the concept of “de-familialization” (Gøsta Esping-Andersen 1999) only in relation to the care system. This study tries to extend the concept’s use to all “policies that lessen individuals’ reliance on the family; that maximize individuals’ command of economic resources independently of familial or conjugal reciprocities” (p. 45) and to apply it to public aid policies for educational costs. It does this by examining Sweden’s welfare and education budget system.

In the economic crises of the 1990s, public debt increased rapidly in Sweden. The Swedish government reformed its budget system, determining the upper limit of every budget domain in advance from the top down, based on political priorities.

De-familialization was developed through enhancement of social security for the first half of one’s life, mainly of child welfare and public education. In the late 1990s, when public debt was at its peak, the government dramatically increased financial aid for university students while cutting the budget for the elderly; the dependency ratio of the elderly population of Sweden was the highest in the world in 1995.

How did the reform of the budget system relate to the dramatic increase of the education budget? This study will clarify the peculiarities of Sweden’s reformed budget system that enabled the dramatic increase in the education budget alongside the cutting of other budgets.


7 Migrant Workers


1.Comparative analysis of the prevalence of migrant domestic workers in developed countries


Yoshinori ITO(Hitotsubashi University)


With economic and social changes in developed countries in recent years, the number of families engaging in family caregiving has decreased and there has been a shortage of care workers. However, an increase has been observed in the number of migrant domestic workers engaged in elderly care. The Japanese government has initiated studies on the entry of migrant domestic workers on the basis of the ‘Basic Policies for Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform 2014’, a cabinet decision promulgated by the government. The prevalence of migrant domestic workers varies among developed countries. Families in Southern Europe and East Asia employ many domestic workers, whereas families in Northern Europe and Oceania employ few. This study presents a comparativeanalysis to clarify the causes of such differences and to generalise factors that influence increases in the number of migrant domestic workers. In addition, this study elucidates the situation in Japan regarding migrant domestic workers. Emphasising the perspective of familialism, this study explores influences of the long-term care system, population aging, women’s employment, labour regulations, and other factors.


2.Invisiblized Foreign Care Workers – Italian ImmigrationPolicy and the Regional Policies


Rie MIYAZAKI(Ohtsuki City College)


As is the case in Japan, Italy is a super-ageing society, although the second-most important role ( after that of the immediate family ) of the main carer for the frail elderly is taken by the care workers who are a part of the household workers on the open market. Of these care workers, migrant workers account for about 90 percent, and the ratio of non-regular workers is around 60-80 percent.

In this presentation, firstly, a survey as regards the general view of the immigration policies and the social policies for these migrant care workers is implemented. Secondly, through the results of the hearing investigations conducted in 2008, 2013 and 2014, the details and the problems of the regional policies for these care workers with a special focus on matching services between workers and families who need “external” care workers will be elucidated upon.


3.Human Movement across National Borders and the Receiving of Social Benefits


Katsuaki MATSUMOTO(Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)


Nationals of EU member countries (EU citizens) have the right to move and reside in other member countries. However, it is permitted for the member countries to attach restrictions and conditions to this right.

When nationals of EU member countries move to another member country and reside there, they can generally receive the same social benefits as the citizens of that country. However, to avoid excessive financial burden on member countries, which accept nationals from other member countries, they are not responsible for providing social assistance benefits to jobless nationals of other member nations. In Germany, for example, such people do not receive basic security benefits provided to individuals seeking jobs (Hartz IV benefits). This treatment has become the object of debate.

By taking up issues such as this, this report examines the relationship between human movement that transcends national borders and the receiving of social benefits.


8 Child Welfare


1.A Study of Learning Support for the children in poverty in the Public Assistance


Satoko TANAKA(Prefectural of University of Hiroshima)


Recent studies clarify that the poverty negatively affects children’s lives in their scholastic performance, motivation and future expectation.  The purposes of our research are 1) to clarify how the children can be protected from serious childhood problems directly affected by the poverty, and 2) to understand what factors are promoting children volition to study. Our research subject is the learning support program for the 3rd. grade junior high school students in the Public Assistance in A City.

Data was obtained through participatory observation as well as staff (coordinators and university students) interviews. We will discuss the key factors affecting the children’s motivation to study and academic performance which are deeply associated with the relationship between the children and the program staffs formed through the after school activities as the learning support program in the Public Assistance.


2. Quantitative analysis of the educational and employment support in foster care facilities


Tomohiko Moriyama(Shimonoseki City University)・Junko Urasaka (Doshisha University)


The “intergenerational chain of poverty,” in which the poverty of parents results in poverty among their children, has been acknowledged as a problem in recent years. Particularly for children living in foster homes, who have not been raised by their parents for financial or similar reasons, it is important to explore the route to independence and think of ways of breaking the chain of poverty. A considerable amount of primarily fieldwork-based studies have been conducted thus far on how foster care facilities support children with regard to advancing their studies and finding employment, as well as on how the government supports such facilities in providing this support. This report employs data from 290 facilities obtained from a questionnaire survey targeting all foster care facilities, which was conducted in November 2011, to quantitatively analyze factors that determine differences in rates of enrollment in higher education and employment among such facilities. More specifically, the report clarifies how social support for educational enrollment and employment, financial aid, and assistance policies among local government bodies affect rates of enrollment in higher education and employment.


9 Medical Services


1.The Evolution of Differentiation of Medical Function and Promotion of Coordination Policy since 1980’s from the View Point of Social Learning.


Masato RYU(Graduate Student, University of Tsukuba)


Social hospitalization of the elderly people has said to be the biggest pathology in the Japanese medical supply system and it was a main policy problem to be solved for a long time. Although it was not completely solved, it is just in sight in the Ministry of Welfare (Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) having promoted differentiation of medical function and promotion of coordination policy since 1980’s. The policy consists of three points; first one is to differentiate medical function between acute care and chronic care, second one is to promote discharge by Bundled payment in revision of medical fee, third one is to provide both facility and in-home care service. This report explores about the factors that the Ministry of Welfare could promote through the view point of “Social Learning”. Mainly, by focusing on main actor, subject of social learning, Institutional and external factors to formulate social learning process. This report revealed that the Ministry of Welfare has learned the situation of European and American eldercare service and formulate the policy by adopting it to existing institution under the administrative reform since 1980’s.


2.Mutual aid societies and health care in 19th century France


Yohei KONISHI(Graduate student,Kyoto University)


The purpose of this presentation is to consider health care services and social welfare actions which mutual aid societies developed in 19th century France. They began to spread on the whole of France, and had the membership of over one million in the end of 19th century. Mutual aid societies which is one of the oldest social protections, had health care services as the principal function; therefore the expenditure of health care occupied seventy percent of all.

In this presentation, after a survey of the general characteristic of their health care services, we analyze each single society in detail. Actually, there were two type societies, sociétés de secours mutuels autorisées and sociétés de secours mutuels approuvées, in 19th century. The former is the society which prioritizes a professional interest in taking over the tradition of the guild before 19th century, the latter is the society which is called “société imperiale” and which is organized on the basis of a region rather than a profession. Focusing on this ambiguity, this presentation concretely examines their health care services.


10 Social Insurance


1.Employees’ Pension Fund Viewed from Welfare State Theory


Jun FUKUDA(Doshisha University)


In previous years, the Employees’ Pension Fund (Kousei Nenkin Kikin) was a specific institution insofar as the fund managed a part of the assets of the Welfare Pension (Kousei Nenkin). This institution was valuable for both corporate and public pensions when interest rates were high. However, this value disappeared since interest rates have decreased, while a serious conflict between affiliates and non-affiliates of the Fund also developed, which harmed small and mid-size firm administration. Here, the process through which the Employees’ Pension Fund was established and abolished is depicted using Hacker’s (2005) theory of welfare state change. In addition, the role of cognition and discourse has been emphasized in recent welfare state research, so public opinion formation is also analyzed, by text-mining for newspaper articles on the AIJ investment advisory incident at 2012 and Employees’ Pension Fund abolition at 2013, among others.


2.Social Security as the Foreign Economic Policy: the New Role of Public Pension in South Korea


Makoto INOUE(Hitotusubashi University)


This paper examines South Korea’s social security policy after the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. The Korean social security reform at the time has been seen unconventional largely due to its pro-market nature; some have argued that the new Korean social security policy can be described as ‘workfare’ or ‘welfare mix’. Owning much to the existing literature, this paper focus on the new trend in the public pension system. In 1999 the public pension system in South Korea first started its operation in the stock market in order to strengthen its financial sustainability. This move was rather unconventional, provided that the advanced welfare states’ tradition saw the stock market as the sources of instability for public social security.

Why did this happen? How has the policy formed? To better understand the nature of this process, this paper draws attention to the role of the foreign economic policy in the formation of new pension system. In doing so, it reveals that the public pension funds functioned as a long-term capital which provides stabilization of global financial markets.


3.Occupational Diseases and Social Security –A Significance of Complementary Policy for Workers’ Compensation in Act on Asbestos Health Damage Relief


Shinjiro MINAMI(Ritsumeikan University)


The purpose of this study are a clarification of a significance of complementary policy for workers’ compensation in “Act on Asbestos Health Damage Relief (Asbestos New Act)” and an examination concerning compensation and relief policy for health injury on public hygiene as a field of social security.

Recent years, asbestos diseases have been increased and Asbestos New Act was enforced from 2006 in Japan. This act has the two points of public assistance function as complementary roles of workers’ compensation. First, this act relieves the family of the deceased by asbestos who cannot claim workers’ compensation insurance by reason of negative prescription (for five years). Second, this act relieves the asbestos victims if they cannot prove a causal relation of occupational asbestos exposure, and/or they were exposed asbestos by environmental factor. This act is treated limited policy for specified diseases relief. But the contents of this act involve a significance for policy of social security and long-term (several decades, in case of asbestos) incubation period diseases.

Symposium Sessions (abstract), JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


1.Reflections on Emiko Takenaka’s Theory :  Women’s labor movements and family


After the publication of the Collected Writings of Emiko TAKENAKA in 2011-2012, in the 126th general assembly of 2013, a workshop on TAKENAKA’s theoretical work over production, social reproduction and commodification of labor force was organized.

This workshop aims at facilitating discussion on the following more concrete issues. The first report will focus on the influences of TAKENAKA’s work on women’s labor movements.

The second report will discuss the women’s labor and changing family form in the age of neoliberalism from the perspective of TAKENAKA’s theory on labor market and sexual division of work. One of the reporters is a former organizer of the Osaka Regional Council of Trade Union of Japan (Osaka-Sohyo), and the other  has an experience of working in a youth union.

Emeritus Professor, Emiko TAKENAKA, if possible, will join the workshop to make comments on discussion.


Chair:Nobuko Hara(Hosei University)

Coordinator:Akemi Kita(Fukui Prefectural University)

1.Women’s labor movements in Kansai region and TAKENAKA’s theoretical work.


Tomoko GOKA(A former representative of Kansai Research Institute for Women’s Issues)


This report aims at clarifying the influences of TAKENAKA’s theory on women’s labor movements on the following points mainly based on the experiences of the reporter and other primary sources.

1. In 1960, women’s demands for equal pay were rejected by labor unions. In 1965-73, TAKENAKA’s articles on pay equity, which were carried in the special issue of Sohyo, influenced women’s labor movements in Kansai region theoretically.

2. Emeritus Professor, TAKENAKA proposed a theory bridging the gap between protection and equality. She made a contribution to shift movements only opposed to deprivation of women’s rights to movements for decent work and lifestyle both for women and men.

3. Emeritus Professor, TAKENAKA warns that equality of opportunity will strengthen sexual division of work, and proposes that labor unions should work for equality of result.


2.Labor and family in the era of neoliberalism and TAKENAKA’s theoretical works.


Akiko MINOWA(The Jikei University)


Today, neoliberalism is strengthening again the principles of capitalism in our society, and the gender structure also has been changed. The relations between the capitalism and changing structure of labor and family should be discussed in a new perspective of contemporary changing society.

Emeritus Professor, Emiko TAKENAKA began her study with a minute and critical analysis on the gender structure and capitalism in the period of high economic growth of Japan.

 I reflect on this feature of her study and will discuss how TAKENAKA’s theoretical work can be applied to the analysis of women’s labor and family of the age of neoliberalism in order to suggest what are necessary to resolve problems on labor and family toda



2.Foreign Workers, Immigrants and Multiculturalism in East Asia


Aging and low fertility are significant challenges not only in Japan but also in most advanced societies in East Asia. Since the beginning of this century, the shortage of labor force, especially that of unskilled workers in industries such as agriculture, construction, care and housework, has begun tangible, and some countries opened the domestic labor markets to foreigners. At the same time, the marriage immigrants have rapidly increased as well, which brought about more delicate problems such as education and social integration. Even in Japan, which took the most reluctant altitude to foreigners, the voice of requiring deregulation is increasing in various industries recently.

In this session, we attempt to approach to the international migration and multiculturalism in East Asia through the following aspects. The first presentation will examine the immigration policy in the context of regional economic integration in East Asia, based on theoretical and empirical evidences. The second presentation gives light to the brokers of care/domestic worker in Southeastern Asia, the major labor supply region, to examine their influences to the international labor market. The last presentation, based on the in-depth fieldwork to the support organizations and schools in Taiwan, discusses the change of ethnicity and multiculturalism in Taiwan after the rapid increase of marriage immigrants and multicultural families.


Coordinator:LI Lianhua(Shizuoka University)

Debater:Shogo TAKEGAWA(Tokyo University)


1.Migration Policy in the Context of Regional Economic Integration in East Asia


IGUCHI Yasushi(Kwansei Gakuin University)


In East Asia, tensions are rising as a result of territory disputes and security concerns. Fortunately, there remains strong momentum for promoting trade negotiations to establish institutional regional economic integration. In the meantime, international migration in this region tends to increase, which is of great significance not only to develop economic integration but also to maintain peace and to enhance innovative competence of this region.

From such standpoints, this presentation aims to makes future prospects of international migration in this region based on theoretical and empirical evidences. Firstly, the roles of international migration in the context of regional economic integration will be discussed. Secondly, the mechanism of fertility decline and changes in the labor markets will be explored, which is affecting international migration. Thirdly, not only factors affecting inflow of migrants into Japan, but also growing risks of their outflows and related policies should be discussed. Finally, approaches to develop human resources from East Asian perspectives will be discussed, while promoting social integration of their families especially through guaranteeing educational opportunities for their second and third generations.


2.The State of Labor Market Affairs on Caregivers also Domestic Helpers in the region of Southeastern Asia-Reaching effects into Japan


YAMADA Kenji(Kyoto Women’s University)


The international labor markets are growing so rapidly at the state of many sorts of industries. The agencies which make the management between oversea workers to employee control these markets potently. The activities are extending for sending and accepting countries both side. They could reach the power even for the government to maintain and broaden their business into the world. The key words for comprehending their activities, employment management, banking, human trafficking, exploitation from workers, bribery for the public sectors and so on.

The Japanese labor market is far from the international situation mentioned above. What could be happened in the near future as Japanese government start to accept the migrant workers? This is a report particularized for the field of domestic helper and caregiver.


3.“New Immigrants” and the Multiculturalism in Taiwan: Case Study of Fieldwork in Marriage Immigrants Support Organizations and Elementary Schools


KANETO Sachiko(Fuji Women’s University)


In Taiwan, “new immigrants” (which means marriage immigrants and foreign workers, especially refers to marriage immigrants) have increased since around the 2000s. In the early stage of 2000s, it has been considered that “new immigrants” might have negative impact on Taiwanese society. However, passed about ten years, “new immigrants” are diversifying; their children reach elementary school-age, the situation surrounding “new immigrants” and their social status are gradually changing.

In this presentation, based on the concept of “mode of incorporation” of immigrants, I will focus on how the consciousness of immigrants, the staff or teachers have changed from the case study of marriage immigrants support organizations and elementary schools, and how immigrants have been accepted in Taiwanese society. Furthermore, I will attempt to explore the transformation of ethnicity and the multiculturalism in Taiwan.



3.Income and Occupational Support for Employable needy Persons: from the viewpoint of comparison study between Japan and Germany


Order to respond to the increase of the employable needy, institutional reform is being carried out. In Germany, for employable needy persons, Basic income support for job-seekers has been introduced since 2005. In Japan, for needy persons who are likely to become unable to maintain a minimum standard of living, the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons will be implemented from next year.

In this workshop, from the point of view of Japan and Germany comparison, speakers consider the reform in Japan and focus on two issues. The first is a matter of coordination and priorities between employment support and assisted living. The second issue is the judicial control against the sanctions and obligation.


Coordinator:Hisashi FUKAWA(Hosei University)


1.The Roll of Public Assistance Act in the System of Social Security for the Unemployed


Hideo KINOSHITA(Osaka City University)


It is the most important theme of social policy, what shall the Public Assistance Act do in the system of the social security for the unemployed, when the number of the unemployed and underemployed increase drastic. Someone says that the increase of the recipients of public assistance means an abuse. But when the employment insurance does not function enough, the increase of the recipient of public assistance cannot be avoided.

In this presentation, the speaker analyzes the performance of the employment insurance and investigate the roll of public assistance Act in the actual situation.


2.The Occupational Assistance aimed at Reducing Poverty in the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons


Hisashi FUKAWA(HOSEI University)


In programs for the promotion of persons’ self-reliance in the Public Assistance, various supports for the employable needy have been developed. Together with benefits that ensure a basic standard of living, these programs scheme also provide supports intended to help retain, restore or improve the

employability. The concrete results of these programs on employability, work orientation and social integration are significant.

On the other hand, the Act on Support for Self-Reliance of Needy Persons, without benefits that ensure a basic standard of living, provides supports aimed at reducing or ending poverty through the taking up of employment. Benefit sanctions in the Public Assistance are tightened with the introduction of the new administrative notification. We study whether new act and administrative notification effectively contribute to integrate employable needy into the labor market or to promote social integration.



4.New Frontier of Labor- and Vocational Education


This session focuses on present situation of labor- and vocational education in Japan. Each of our three chosen young specialists engaging in this problem area will give a presentation concerning this matter. In the following discussion we will aim to consider how we should reconstruct our contemporary unsatisfyingly organized labor- and vocational education system which has prevented a lot of young people from getting a good insight into a future working life. As the first reporter, Mr. Isa, a specialist on labor economics, will report on the status quo and problems of university education of labor economy in Japan. Next Mr. Mizuno, a practicing labor and social security attorney, will argue the problematic concerning the instruction in vocational and labor matters for young people given by his professional association in Aichi area. Last, Mr. Isohata, a researcher engaging in HR practices in France, tries to evaluate the situation in Japan based on the recent findings of his field research in French vocational education.


Coordinator:Fumiki ISHIZUKA(Seinan-Gakuin University)

                                       Debater: Tachihiko MASUDA(Senshu University)


1.Past and present of education of labor economy in Japan: An approach by textbook survey


Katsuhide ISA(Seinan-Gakuin University)


Recently many issues have gained public attention pertaining to education of economics and of labor. They pertain to institutionalization of academic disciplines at the universities, and textbooks are one of the main tools to promote it. But in Japan, surprisingly, there have been few studies about textbooks for undergraduates so far in the area of labor economics. The main purpose of this paper therefore is an exploration into the past and present of education of labor economy in Japan through textbook survey and to provide some implications for its future. Specifically, we firstly confirm the development of the textbooks of labor economy and background factors behind it. Secondly, we survey the textbooks of labor economy published in postwar Japan quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, we confirm the numerical attributes of the textbooks, such as their number of pages/chapters/revisions, publishers, publication years, attributes of authors. Furthermore, we identify the types of textbooks (neoclassical, institutional and eclectic) to see their share over time. Qualitatively, focusing on major textbooks, we compare them by title-topic cross tabulation and point out several observable tendencies and problems, such as decrease in industrial relations topics, legal/policy issue topics and definition of basic categories, less emphasis on macroeconomic issues and disproportionately heavier emphasis on microeconomic issues.


2.Current Status and Issues of labor education carried out by practitioners


Katsuyasu MIZUNO(Aichi Labor and Social Security Attorney Association)


In front of the mal-treatment in so-called “black companies” or a possible cut in public pension plan in the near future, anxiety concerning working-life among Japanese young people has grown recently. To cope with this situation the Aichi Labor and Social Security Attorney Association (ALSSAA) has given lectures on labor and social insurance to high school students in Aichi Prefecture with a view to giving them a chance to think about their future working-life. But it has been not easy for practitioners of ALSSAA to explain to schools the significance of labor education and to persuade them into introducing the courses tailor-made for this matter. Indeed only a few schools have introduced such courses in Aichi Prefecture until today while allowing the students only a very little teaching content and very limited school hour for this purpose. But today Japanese young people have a very limited opportunity to learn in their workplace what it is like to work or how they should work. So the importance of labor education in schools in ahead of working-life is growing more and more. To attract a public attention to this matter I will report on the reality and the problems of the labor education carried out by the ALSSAA while searching for an ideal style of contribution of practitioners to the formation of future labor education.


3.Aspects of French vocational education


Kohei ISOHATA(Kagawa University)


Essentially introduced by the Astier Law of 1919, the French vocational education system has been developing in its own unique way in near 100-year history. Above all, the continuing vocational education system was established by an agreement among government, labor and management in the 1970s. Also, two higher education reforms in 1968 and 1974 promoted vocational or technical curricula in the institutions of higher education, main actor of the continuing vocational education. Now, the alternating training is in great vogue, combining the theory in classroom with the practice in companies and improving employability of young people.

In this presentation, I will explain the unique characteristics of French vocational education, based on its history and current state. Also, comparing with the situation of Japanese vocational education, I will seek implications for its future.



5.Consideration of Various Types of Female Labor in Korea: From the Perspective of  “Informality”


Coordinator:Ryoko HATTORI (Osaka City University) 

Debater:Nobuko YOKOTA (Yamaguchi University)


While the globalization has developed rapidly since the 1990s, irregular workers or a-typical workers have conspicuously increased all over the world. On the other hand,  there are so many different kinds of irregular employment type such as we cannot generalize them simply as the irregular work, because the way of the irregularization of labor varies by region and times. Especially, among the female workers in Japan and Korea, another “informal” workers as well as part-time workers and indirect employment such as dispatched and contracted workers hold the majority. While almost all of them are so much excluded from the protection of labor laws, social welfare and a trade union, these informal female workers support the production activities in society. Moreover, the self-employed other than wage workers, which have had the “informal” characteristics of employment have constituted traditionally a large proportion of the female employment in Korea. Therefore, we asked Prof. Joohee Lee and Prof. Myunghwi Lee to make presentation on the actual condition and the structure of the various types of female labor in Korea from the gender perspective.


1.The Informal Employment and the Structure of Labor Market from the Gender Perspective since the 1990s


Joohee LEE(Ewha Womans University)


The female work participation in Korea has grown up since the 1990s as the globalization is proceeding, but this is also a process of irregularizaion of work forces. Then, the irregular workers have become as serious social issues since the IMF crisis in 1998, when the irregular workers started to replace the male regular workers.

Our research aims to examine the gender differences in the mechanism of labor market integration by analysing macro statistics as well as conducting social survey. Female irregular workers tend to work in small business sectors, comparing to male counterparts, and they are often excluded from the legal protections and trade union support because they are seen as engaging informal employment.  Our survey covers the various types of employment, such as contracted workers, dispatched workers and self-employed, mainly excluded from previous macro data analysis, in order to examine the gender differences in labor market.


2.The Historical Consideration of the Formation of the Female Self-Employed in Korea: Through the Fieldwork in the Pusan Area 


Myunghwi LEE(Ewha Womans University)


The structure of labor market in Korea is characterized by a high ratio of self-employed worker in whole working population traditionally. In the 2000s, the self-employed workers account for 30 per cent of the whole working population in Korea. It is important to note that there is a circular relation between non-regular employment and self-employment for the female workers, which leads to fix their marginal status in the labor market in Korea. In other words, the issues of socially vulnerable people such as so called working poor can be understood in the context of this circular structure among the non-regular workers, the self-employed, and non-labor market participants.

Our research will focus on the historical aspects of female self-employed workers in Korea, based on the theory of urban informal sectors. In particular, our survey will focus on the case of Busan city, which has a large population of female self-employed and many of them are the widows of the Korean war.  Busan city has tried several policy initiatives to support them, including micro-finance to start up business are conducted.



6.Current Status and Issues of the Self-Support programs for Needy People


The law of Self-Support programs for Needy People was enacted in December 2013 as a second safety net. Today, many local governments promote Pilot projects aimed at employment and social participation of the needy people. But, since the pace of local governments is not complete, there are various optional support programs, efforts of local governments also are diverse. On the other hand, the approach of support is different from the support system for job seekers which is positioned at second safety net, also the employment support beneficiaries under the minimum living guarantee system as the last safety net.

In view of such things, there are many issues to be discussed in this system. For example, there are issues surrounding the concept that defines the support method. What kind of support local governments can provide?

In this workshop, we try to understand the current situation and problems of the Self-Support programs for Needy People, first from the point of view of project implementing bodies (local governments, support organizations and social enterprises), secondly from the point of view of the nature of individual support (continual counseling support and employment support).


Chair:Junri SAKURAI (Ritsumeikan University)

Coordinator:Hiroyuki FUKUHARA(Osaka City University)

1.          Institutional framework of the Self-Support programs for Needy People : from the point of view of the activation policy


                      Hiroyuki FUKUHARA(Osaka City University)


Since the 1980s, in the Western countries, there were a variety of activation policy as the social inclusion for the poor and needy people. They may be divided into several types. On the other hand, in Japan since the late 1990s, the policy of the government to the poor and needy people contain a different type of activation,   and some employment support measures.

Under these circumstances, Self-Support program for needy people is going to be implemented. I will approach to this system from the point of view of international comparison of activation, and discuss the significance and limitations of this program.


2.Current State and Issues of Local Governments in Conducting Self-Support programs for Needy People : From the perspective of promoting and activating social resources in local community


Norimichi GOISHI(Osaka City University)


Self-help support programs are under the jurisdiction of local governments and classified as self-governing function, while public assistance are classified as statutory entrusted function. In this system, ‘decentralized and creative support’ is emphasized.

The concept of self-help support contains not only conventional welfare, but also employment, housing, family financial management support and educational support. It will be significantly difficult tasks for local governments to implement this program. Furthermore, while providing with cash benefits are main business under the conventional welfare, providing with care services are main business under the new system. In this regard, a new approach, which will be different from that of the existing systems, is required.

To tackle these challenges, how are local governments preparing? Local governments show a variety of directions in implementing this new system. In this report, we will study typical cases and investigate their effectiveness.


3.Current Status and Issues of contract private organizations of the Self-Support programs for Needy People : Social enterprise responsible for the employment preparation program and intermediate labor market program


Atsusi FUJII(Rikkyou University)


The Self-Support programs for Needy People is a system which is intended to lead the needy people to stable employment or social participation. In particular, the employment preparation program and intermediate work program are important. In this program, there are the policy of expansion of short-term work opportunities   in the private sector on the one hand. But, the support policy of long-term the work experience is more desirable in the case of people who suffer from various difficulties on the other hand.

However, on the assumption that the government does not provide financial assistance, the development of opportunities for intermediate work is a major issue.  At the same time, it would be important to provide opportunities for work experience with high-quality and stability.

Focusing on social enterprise as subject to challenge in this challenge, we will analyze the evolution of the social enterprise, in particular the network and coordination from the point of view of the organizational theory.


4.An inquiry into The Self-Support programs for Needy People : the scheme and functions of continually providing personal and comprehensive support services


Yusuke KAKITA(Oita University)


People with difficulty in life are in economic poverty and social isolation. Therefore, for them, it is required not only support for work, but also support for daily life and social relationship.

From this perspective, this paper, by analyzing the support for needy people for real, aims at addressing the scheme and functions of continually providing personal and comprehensive support services. Through this analysis, this paper examines issues about policy and practice for people with difficulty in life.


5.Current Status and Issues of The Self-Support programs for Needy People by social enterprise :Verification of the role of the work support with an emphasis on the party concerned


Kendo OTAKA(Seigakuin University)


“Employment” support is well recognized in the Self-Support programs. But, “work” support (assistance in the field of work) is critical important. But, employment support tend devoted focus not only on the improvement of willingness and employability of the parties, but also look to the aspect of “place of work”.

In the circumstance which a variety of people work in cooperation, as well as aware of the role of their own, how to build a work environment that allows to support companion and take care of teamwork? I try to discuss the construction of independence against the work which may be raised naturally in that environment.



7.Limit of Full Employment and Recent Changes in Social Policies in Japan and Europe


Unemployment rate in the advanced economies has kept high due to low economic growth and increased female work force. Japan also faces unfavorable labor market while unemployment rate is relatively low. In Europe we see increased flexibility in labor market on the one hand and also broadened field of social security on the other. Some countries have new public assistance with no or easier means test. Japan has followed same path. The session will discuss recent changes in Dutch and Japanese social policy as continued session from the 127th meeting as well as theory of poverty in Europe. Main focus rests on that 1) the Dutch “flexicurity” is limited to flexibility in labor market, not included social security, in particular social welfare; 2) Japanese “second safety net” is similar to European programs, but has not principles of self determination and merit-free egalitarianism; 3) Also in the theory of poverty Sen’s notion of capability has possibility of new theory based on self determination and merit-free egalitarianism. It presents the same direction as the social policies discussed or to be discussed here.


Chair:Kimihiko ISHIKAWA (Meiji University)

Coordinator:Kazuo TAKADA(Hitotsubashi University)


1.Flexicurity policy and the long-term unemployed in the Netherlands


Takamitsu KUBO(Meiji University)


Flexicurity programs for the long-term unemployed in the Netherlands will be discussed based on my survey in March 2014. The Dutch government shortened the duration of unemployment benefit from 60 months to 38 months in 2006. It is still long and generous for the unemployed. After expiry of the benefit, people still in unemployment can be transferred to the public assistance. But they cannot receive the money before they pass means test. They have to sell their houses and cars to pass the test. Great is the gap between statuses of the unemployed with generous benefits and the recipient of public assistance. This is the traditional policy which was standard in the 20th century. But now, it is quite different from RSA in France and Hartz IV in Germany which situate between social insurance and traditional public assistance. The Dutch “flexicurity” is limited to labor market, in that it is equal status between regular workers and atypical employees. It is not security for the long-term unemployed. The Dutch policy for the unemployed is based on self-help principle. It is a conservative policy, different from French and German policies toward unemployed people which is based on self-determination and merit-free egalitarianism.


2.Revisit in the theory of poverty –From relative poverty to social exclusion


Nobuo SHIGA(Graduate Student ,Hitotsubashi University)


Peter Townsend’s theory of relative deprivation is the most important theory of poverty in the present Britain. It focuses on insufficiency in consumption. When he established the theory, full employment was a practical target of economic policy, and unemployment was seen a transient phenomenon. Then, he thought that temporal benefits were sufficient to enter again to the working lives and social integration. Full employment was, however, difficult to attain since 1980s, and “new poverty” emerged. The new social problem means that social integration will be impossible with just the dole to support consumption. Amartya Sen proposed the notion of capability which is to substitute for insufficiency of consumption. The report maintains that Sen’s notion reveals dead-end faced by the British theory of poverty, and that by using the notion of capability we can understand “new poverty” clearly, and develop a new theory in social inclusion.


3.Current status and issues of “Second Safety net” in Japan


Takao SASAKI(Tokyo University of Social Welfare)


In response to the increased unemployment rate after the Lehman Shock, the Japanese government launched a new program, called Second Safety Net. The main program includes the support system for job seekers that has been in place since 2011 as well as the support system for needy persons which was implemented in 2015. These systems are expected to function in between for the social insurance and public assistance.

While there have been various discussions about individual systems that are included in the Second Safety Net, there have not been adequate discussions about why Second Safety Net is required in addition to the existing systems and ongoing problems that the social security system has faced as well as how Second Safety Net is trying to solve the problems.

In this report, we aimed to analyze Second Safety Net in such aspects and consider about our future challenges.


Plenary Sessions (abstract), JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


Social policy and Labour Market De-regulation: 

Comparing the debate in Japan and the European Union


The Japanese Government intends to deregulate the rules pertaining to the labour market. The country therefore finds itself at a turning point: whether to initiate more deregulation or not. Across the Member States of the European Union, for example, labour market deregulation continues to be advanced under the rubric of ‘Labour market flexibility’. This appears to be different than the situation in Japan.

The debate in the EU has not only been driven by governments it has also included social partners and trade unions that have proposed strategies in opposition to neo-liberalism such as the Supiot report. Such debate has gone on to influence the European Commission’s Employment Strategy as well as the employment Policy and Labour Law of various European countries.

Based on the above, the aim of this session will be to draw comparisons, about labour market rules, between the European case and the latest proposals emanating from the Japanese government.


Chair:Tateshi MORI(Teikyo University)


1.Current situation on EU labour law policy

Keiichiro HAMAGUCHI(The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)


In the EU labour legislation system, corporatism in the form of involvement and initiative of social partners is stipulated at the level of constitutional norm, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and is regarded as an expression of democracy at the legislation. From the enforcement of the Maastricht Treaty, not so small number of agreements were concluded between intersectoral andsectoral social partners and were enforced in the form of Council Directives. Recently, however, autonomous agreements which are not transformed into directives are preferred bacause of the opinion of  business side and some legal problems are pointed out.

From mid-2000’s, on the other hand, European Commission has clearlyrecommended the Danish flexicurity, which is in retreat bacause of the recent crisis. Moreover, paradoxically, successive judgements of EU Court of Justice in late 2000’s have driven the Nordic industrial relations system, which is the social foundation of the flexicurity,

into the corner with the principle of Internal Market. Monti proposal which would make regulations on the right of strike in the EU level was withdrawn because of criticism from both business and labour.

Meanwhile, transnational company agreements at the EU level have been concluded steadily in the framework of European works councils, and the number of agreement is already over 250. European Commission aims to legislate the transnational company agreement at the EU level and has conducted the setup of experts group and consultation of social partners. However, there are many legal problems which conflict with national industrial relations systems such as division of role between trade unions and employee representatives.


2.Social Regulations on Labor in Germany

Yoko Tanaka(University of Tsukuba)


In Germany, deregulation process on labor relations proceeded from the end of 1990s to 2000s.

Similar to Japan, the number of regular full-time employment decreased.  On the contrary, the so-called irregular employment(atypische Beschäftigung), like fixed-term employees(Befristete Arbeit) and dispatched workers(Leiharbeit) increased rapidly.

Along with the high unemployment rate, low-wage work have been approved and promoted. The new unemployment payment system was established on condition of efforts of getting jobs.

In the same period, the organization rate of labor unions has continuously decreased to 20 % and less. Including the increase of non-works council workplaces and the expanding trend of working hours, the social regulation on labor seems to be gradually retreated.

However, this situation began to change itself, particularly after the Lehmann shock in 2008-2009,.

Germany got out from the very serious economic recession smoothly and rapidly in the EU countries. Its economy is in a favorable condition. In this period, the following new trends are emerging:

First, the number of the irregular employment bottomed out and turned into decrease. So do the unemployment rate payment and its budget amount. Not only that, the decline of the organization rate of the labor unions also bottomed out, and many are now discussing the revitalization of labor unions. The biggest union IG Metall has newly succeeded to organize young blue-collar workers and dispatched workers. On the basis of plenty of the stored money for the strikes, they have struggled not only to get better wages but also to negotiate about the regulation of the arrangements of dispatched workers and the education of young workers. Now the chairman of IG Metall  is referred to as the most influential person to the German economy. Very recently in July 2014, the unified minimal wage system was introduced, which has been discussed for years but not realized.

Here we will examine what is now happening in Germany, and why these changes happened there in detail, and discuss the suggestions for Japan.


3.Employment strategy in Denmark in the globalization

Takashi Suganuma(Rikkyo University)


This study explores recent Danish employment strategies employed by social partners—employers’ associations and labour unions—and the state as a promising case study of a sustainable welfare state in the era of globalization. Even in Denmark, employment patterns are becoming diversified and atypical, and bargaining between social partners is becoming decentralized. Centralized collective bargaining practices, though common custom previously, diminished during the 1990s, and decentralized bargaining has become more prevalent recently. Although the directives of the European Union and high immigration have restricted the traditional independence of social partners from the state in Denmark, the autonomy of social partners is still strong, and around 70% of Danes belong to unions. While evolving throughout the 20th century, the Danish policy of “flexicurity” became popular in the 2000s. Even as the global economic environment changes drastically with globalization, Danes seem to hold fast to this tradition, while offering some innovation; social partners are likely interested in respecting and keeping it.

In this presentation, based on recent research in Denmark, we explore how social partners and the state have dealt with globalization in the field of industrial relations. By our analysis, we set Denmark as a best practice example of the welfare state’s response to globalization, in terms of both national strategy for economic growth and employment reform. However, a distinct theoretical effort to transfer, import, or transplant this model, different from the Danish tradition, must occur in Japan. Though this effort should be unique and localized, we show through the Danish example, sustainable conditions for Japan as a welfare state that also faces globalization.

Book Review Session(program),JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


1.  Labor 1

Coordinator: Toru KUMAZAWA(Fukushima University)


・Makoto KUMAZAWA, Reasons for Trade Unionism Now :In the Quest for  Solidarity at Work


Reviewer:Masashi UEDA(Doshisha University)


・Taichi ITO ,Labour Movement and Atypical Employment in Japan: Resistance and

Independence of youth workers


Reviewer: Shoji HASHIGUCHI(Ritsumeikan University)


・Ryoji KANEKO, An Inquiry into the Wage and the Salary in Modern Japanese History


Reviewer: Michio NITTA(Kokushikan University)


2. Labor 2

Coordinator: Koh IGAMI(Kobe International University)


・Sachi KOTANI, Sociology of Individually-affiliated Unions: Tokyo Managers’ Union and Women’s Union Tokyo, 1993-2002


                     Reviewer: OH Hak-soo(The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)


・Nobuyuki YAMADA, Social Movement Unionism: Globalization and the Revitalization of the Labor Movement


Reviewer: Charles WEATHERS(Osaka City University)

・Takashi HISAMOTO, Job Assistance and Poverty in the United States


Reviewer: Hayato KOBAYASHI(Nihon Fukushi University)


3.  Social Security

Coordinator: Kiriyo NAKAZONO(Hokkai-Gakuen UNIVERSITY)


・Satoru HASHIMOTO, Fundamental Perspectives on Nonprofit Studies


Reviewer: Norimichi GOISHI(Osaka City University)


・Naho SUGITA,Historical Studies on the Population Problem and Social Policy in Japan:Eugenics and Euthenics


Reviewer: Naoko TOMIE(Ibaraki University)


・Mari OSAWA, Governance of Livelihood Security


Reviewer: Kaori KATADA(Hosei University)

JASPS 129th (2014 Autumn) Biannual Conference Time Table


JASPS 129th (2014 Autumn) Biannual Conference
Date: 11-12 October, 2014
Venue: Okayama University, Okayama

October 11th   Program of Plenary Sessions


Doors Open


Plenary Sessions

Social policy and Labour Market De-regulation

: comparing the debate in Japan and the European Union

1.Current situation on EU labour law policy

Keiichiro HAMAGUCHI(The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)

2.Social Regulations on Labor in Germany

Yoko Tanaka(University of Tsukuba)

3.Employment strategy in Denmark in the globalization

Takashi Suganuma(Rikkyo University)


Lunch Break[committees]


Plenary Sessions


Kensaku TOMURO(Yamagata University)

Rei SEIYAMA(Ibaraki University)

Overall Debates


Social Meeting


October 12th   Program of Symposium Sessions and General Sessions


Doors Open


Book Review Sessions

1.  Labor 1

2. Labor 2

3.  Social Security

Symposium Sessions

1.Reflections on Emiko Takenaka’s Theory :  Women’s labor movements and family

General Sessions

1.Vocational Training

2.Service Provider


Lunch Break[committees]


Symposium Sessions

2.Foreign Workers, Immigrants and Multiculturalism in East Asia

3.Income and Occupational Support for Employable needy Persons: from the viewpoint of comparison study between Japan and Germany

4.New Frontier of Labor- and Vocational Education

General Sessions

3.Industrial Relations


5.Welfare for the Elderly

6.Thoughts and Ideas


Symposium Sessions

5.Consideration of Various Types of Female Labor in Korea: From the Perspective of  “Informality”

6.Current Status and Issues of the Self-Support programs for Needy People

7.Limit of Full Employment and Recent Changes in Social Policies in Japan and Europe

General Sessions

7. Migrant Workers

8. Child Welfare

9.  Medical Services

10. Social Insurance