Previoues Entries

Previoues Entries

General Sessions (abstract), JASPS 129th Biannual Conference


Vocational Training


1.The effect of public vocational training on carrying out self-development , retention of workplace and wage


Guangjie LU(Graduate student ,Osaka City University)


Although achieving high employment rate is so important to public vocational training schools for the unemployed , trainee’s retention of workplace and wage are also significant . In addition , public vocational training schools should have trainees understand the importance of self-development. The reason is that small-and medium-sized enterprises in Japan don’t actively provide their employees trainings . So employees have to rely on self-development to improve the level of skills by which they can escape from poverty and improve their employability .

The paper focuses on trainee’s self-development, retention of workplace in one year after their graduation and wants to suggest what the public vocational training schools should do for providing better training.


2.The Position of Public Human Resources Development According to the Employment Status Survey


Nami OYA(Aomori Public University)


Securing and nurturing human resources is essential to the maintenance and development of regional economies. For example, calculations using prefectural data reveal a positive correlation between regional production volumes and an increase in technical experts who constitute the core of the enterprise. Although in-house training for employees is considered important in nurturing such technical experts, it has been observed that small businesses are shifting from on-the-job training (OJT) to off-the-job training (off-JT) and are tending to overemphasize outsourcing. Moreover, corporate expenses for training are on the decline. In the midst of this, one can say that public human resources development has an important position as a means to nurture human resources, especially for regions with few private education and training organizations. This study explores the demand for vocational training by analyzing public data from the Employment Status Survey for each prefecture, along with data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Human Resources Development. In particular, regarding public human resources development, the study examines which regions and age groups are demanding these services and investigates the role these services play in regional economies.


  Service Provider


1.Who is a landlord of privately-rent housing? ――as a condition for public housing subsidy


Kazuhiro SATO(Graduate Student, The University of Tokyo)


This study shows the findings from the interview conducted by the presenter to landlords of privately-rented housing. At present, housing policy in Japan is shrinking and it is placing disproportionate weight on subsidy to the tenants. Considering this current situation, this report reveals the conditions of landlords as a key player in implementing policies that could be an incentive for the supply side of housing. This study found that first, because landlords’ social status varies and that their identity as a landlord is unstable in society, a housing subsidy that takes these peculiar conditions of landlords into consideration are required. Secondly, there is a need for reconsideration of what has been suggested by previous studies, that landlords should continue their business even if it does not achieve profit target. In this regard, the structure of housing supply needs to be studied further. Lastly, housing policy needs to be implemented in conjunction with land regulation and urban designing because these policies are known to affect landlords’ action.


2.A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Non-profit and For-profit Home Care Services Providers


Nobuko KNAYA(Hiroshima City University)


With the emergence of a quasi-market for long-term care services (LTCS) for the elderly, various non-profit and for-profit providers have started to offer such services. New providers have become particularly prevalent in home care services: in 2012, for-profit companies, medical corporations, and non-profit organizations comprised 59%, 7%, and 6% of home care services providers, respectively. The market share of existing providers, such as social welfare corporations, has decreased.

Because their missions and goals are not the same, it may be that non-profit and for-profit providers in the LTCS market differ in behavior and performance. However, few studies have explored the actual conditions of this quasi-market. Thus, based on the data published by the care service information system, this study examines differences in performance between providers according to business scale and contents, staff, and user characteristics. The primary aims of this study are 1) to examine the possibility of cream skimming and 2) to investigate the provision of services by informal, rather than formal, LTCS providers.


3 Industrial Relations


1.Japanese Employment System and a Policy of Equal Pay for Equal Jobs


Katsuhiko IWATA(National Institute for Educational Policy Research)


In Japan the human resource development within the enterprise is at the core of career development of people, and training in corporation connects with their performance-based pay system. During training period their pay exceed their labor productivity of added value , so sometime after this period companies intend to earn back their investment from their employees’ service. In these context realizing the policy of equal pay for equal jobs swiftly is so difficult.The way to get close to the world of equal pay for equal jobs step by step through the following policies will be appropriate.

Firstly by shortening the period of intense corporate training and by hastening to earn back companies’ investment ,the employees’ wage level after 40 year will be matched up with their productivity. Secondly “ limited regular employees”, who would be limited in the types of duties they could perform, work locations and working hours, should be increased. Thirdly work-life balance of regular employees should be actively promoted. Fourthly the visualization of vocational capability should be driven forward.


2.Redefinition of the industrial relations system in the U.S. and its suggestion to Japan.


Ken YAMAZAKI(The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training)


From the 1990s, the number of new labor organizations which coordinate interests of the plural actors by the round table increases in the US. There is a movement of reinterpretation of National Labor Relations Act which gave a permission of the collective bargaining for a labor union which could get majority vote from a bargaining unit employee. The cooperation between Labor unions and new labor organizationsalso progress. Under these circumstances, I would like to examine the situation of the U.S.industrial relations system from the viewpoint of mutual aid, advocacy and policy requirement known as a requirement of a trade union, and also vocational training, adjustment of the interest of the actors in the community.

The industrial relations study in Japan might often consider the relation between labor union and management in the U.S. rigid for accepting labor management cooperation, or in the context of the social unionism. The redefinition of the U.S. industrial relations system is wider than the range considered in Japan. I would also like to examine a problem and the suggestion for the future industrial relations system in Japanthoroughconsidering the U.S. industrial relations system.


3.The alien immigrants and the labour restriction in Britain from the late 19th to early 20th century: referring to S. &. B. Webb’s studies on sweating.


Shotaro SAITO(Graduate Student,Tokyo University)


In Britain from the late 19th to early 20th century, the influx of destitute alien immigrants from eastern Europe caused the various ‘Alien Problems’, and the immigrants were restricted under the Aliens Act 1905. Many of the immigrants were occupied in the sweated trades such as the tailors and shoemakers, and submitted to the inferior condition of low wage, long hour and insanitary, the sweating was the core of the ‘Alien Problems’. Sidney and Beatrice Webb studied the sweating-system, and raised the concept of ‘National Minimum’ in their book “Industrial Democracy”. Although it is said that they regarded the women labourers more importantly than the aliens immigrants as the factor of sweating, Beatrice Webb had interest in the ‘Jewish community’. Now, how did they analyse the alienimmigrants? In this presentation, I will refer to mainly Webb’s sweating studies, and examine that the labour restriction such as the minimum wage could substitute the immigration restriction.


4 Poverty 


1.Estimation of Number of Socially Isolated Persons and Analysis of Causes for Isolation


Aya ABE(National Institute of Population & Social Security Research)


Especially after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake, there is much talk of the importance of social connection (Kizuna), yet, news and documentaries of ‘social isolation’ have been in the media for some time in Japan. In the poverty studies, the connection between social isolation and poverty has always been noted, yet there has not been much research on the extent of social isolation in Japan or the causes of social isolation as it relates to poverty.

This paper presents the results of “the Survey of Kizuna and Social Services” conducted by the Cabinet Office and is organized by the presenter.  It captures about 5.5 thousand people aged from 20 to 59, and it explores the causes of social isolation as well as estimation of the number of socially isolated in Japan.


2.The analysis of the middle-aged unemployment and the situation of living-hardship


Chiharu NISHIGAKI(Kobe Gakuin University)・Yuko TAMIYA (Kobe Gakuin University)


According to the labor investigation, unemployment rate has been improving after 2010. However, there is still much unemployment with 2,540,000 people (April, 2014), so further improvement is urgent need. Particularly for the middle-aged unemployment there is hard situation that it is difficult to get the chance for reemployment, even though non-regular job.

This study is intended to clarify the cause of unemployment among the middle-aged, and to show the direction of countermeasures. The analysis was carried out through consultation record data of 56 people who can see the reason of unemployment who had the support   with financial assistance in fiscal year 2013 in the rescue program for the people with living-hardship in Osaka. 30 people (54%) had led to unemployment, even though they had the regular job. As for the reason of unemployment, “Illness” occupied half.

It was clarified that unemployment in middle-aged brings the problems of poverty and low income,  what is worse,  if it is caused by health problem such as their illness or care of the family, there is no way to live except being on welfare.


3.A study on public assistance bashing through an analysis of internet surveys


Soshiro YAMADA(Nihon Fukushi University)


In recent years, negative discourse on public assistance has been disseminated through the media. This public assistance bashing has some effect on policy trends, with occurrences including lowering public assistance benefit levels, a revision of the Public Assistance Act and so forth. Some of these discourses are based on inaccurate information. It is, therefore, important to analyze civic awareness regarding public assistance.

This study analyzed the results of an awareness survey on public assistance conducted in May, 2014. The survey was conducted through the Internet, and 1,618 valid responses were obtained. The results are as follows. (1) Lower public assistance benefit levels and an enhancement of duty to support families are not approved in relative terms with regard to issues related to public assistance. (2) Respondents in lower income groups are more sympathetic toward maintaining public assistance levels than higher income groups. (3) Respondents who estimate that the proportion of dishonest recipients is high have feelings of strong resistance toward the entire range of issues related to public assistance.


5 Welfare for the Elderly


1.Rethinking Family Care Support Policies and the Promotion of Comprehensive Community-based Care: Focus on Projects of Municipalities in Tokyo


Izumi KIKUCHI(Japan College of Social Work)


Elderly care policy expanded under long-term care insurance system which has been marketing the services; and its sustainability up to 2025 has been questioned with the aim of constructing comprehensive community-based care system just when baby boomers become 75 years old or older.

But so far specific measures and effectiveness is still uncertain, and conceptualization is jumping to conclusions ahead of post -“socialization of care”. Among them, what to do to support family caregivers has not been sufficiently discussed up to now and has been left aside.

This report discusses the current conditions and issues of family care support policies,taking into consideration the reorganization process of the elderly health & welfare policies in recent years to promote comprehensive community-based care; and in doing so, focusing on the transformation of the role of the municipality, which is the entity responsible as insurers in long-term care insurance system at the same time.

And it focuses on the case in metropolitan areas, where it is urgently necessary to develop long-term care service infrastructure owing to rapid population aging. As a concrete method of study, this report uses the results of the questionnaire survey on projects for family care support conducted for municipalities in Tokyo.


2.The Business Development of The Provision of Social Care Service by Elderly Consumer Cooperatives in Japan


Yurie KUMAKURA(Meiji University)


On the occasion of the creation of the Long-term Care Insurance System in 2000 in Japan, the provision of elderly care services by a multiple of actors was required to expand the service. Consumer cooperatives were one of the actors for which the health and welfare minister of that time made expectation. Followed by this, not only existing consumer cooperatives but also those set up after the system started have developed elderly care services. However, the government’s expectation was that cooperatives would provide services as a kind of mutual assistance that is without the thought of profit. And there is a fear that the cooperatives will have to shoulder the burden of supplementing the public system. However there has been insufficient study to draw conclusions on the current condition of these efforts.

This report will present the case study of a consumer cooperative as the basis for considering the implications of elderly care service provision by cooperatives in combination with the system. The surveyed organization is a local consumer cooperative that is one of the “Elderly Consumer Cooperatives” which have developed in 23 prefectures. The case study will consider their business development.


3.Actual situation and the issues addressed caregiving the home helper : Consideration from Interview conducted in home help visit site


Yukihiro TAKAHASHI(Tezukayama University)


QOL of the user needs to be emphasized in the elderly care. But it has not been studied enough about the user dying care staff.Death were those close to the everyday life. Results of life-sustaining treatment is emphasized along with the progress in medicine in the background, also the proportion of hospital deaths exceeds than home death since 1977, and has an object got away from home.On the other hand, the text of training for care staff, only a small description had not been made on how to support families and the user is near death.I conducted interviews in order for care – giving in the home care field, and to consider what the actual situation and challenges.The findings, from the fact that you are providing care on the assumption that users will stay alive, there is anxiety and confusion when was asked to help care – giving from their families and user care staff.So, I want to organize what kind of challenges to care – giving in the home care field.


6 Thoughts and Ideas


1.Economic Idea of Cameron Government’s ‘the Big Society’ Agenda: In Restructuring Process of British Welfare State


Yasuhisa HIRAKATA(Kyushu Sangyo University)


In this paper, I will examine the Cameron government’s ‘the Big Society’ agenda and try to evaluate its meaning in the restructuring process of British welfare state. In Britain public sector reform, government tried first to introduce market competition or implement privatization in the 1980s, and then to improve accountability in the 1990s. However, in the Big Society speech, he stressed the role of active citizens, in addition to the size and role of a government. Although it caused criticism for trying to cut off welfare, it could be said a response to people’s various needs. Cameron seemed to spell out his own idea that was different from Thatcherism and New Labour. I will summarize this development and try to draw some conclusion.


2.Eugenics and Social Policy in Japan


Satoshi YANO(Nihon University)


Modern Japan Social(welfare) policy has been greatly influenced by the social welfare thought of America and the United Kingdom, and Scandinavian. But the first half of the 20th century, these countries was actively incorporating the eugenic policy represented by a sterilization laws. Mental illness, recessive inheritance, and “leprosy patient”, in the name of sterilization method, have been deprived the “right to inherit the seed” by the hand of person, which is the most basic rights as a human being. People who once were the subject of sterilization method is now the subject to be protected and leading field of social policy. Why the Idea of ​​eugenics that significant loss of human dignity is survived until the second half of the 20th century. How we should be understood the conflict and the context of the social policy and eugenics. I would like to be analyzed in light practices of Fabian socialism in the UK sterilization policy America, the German NATIS, the concept of eugenics Nordic the relationship between eugenics in social policy of our country, to extract its features.


3.Sweden’s Welfare and Education Budget System: From the Viewpoint of De-familialization


Yorimitsu OOKA(Chukyo University)


Many studies have used the concept of “de-familialization” (Gøsta Esping-Andersen 1999) only in relation to the care system. This study tries to extend the concept’s use to all “policies that lessen individuals’ reliance on the family; that maximize individuals’ command of economic resources independently of familial or conjugal reciprocities” (p. 45) and to apply it to public aid policies for educational costs. It does this by examining Sweden’s welfare and education budget system.

In the economic crises of the 1990s, public debt increased rapidly in Sweden. The Swedish government reformed its budget system, determining the upper limit of every budget domain in advance from the top down, based on political priorities.

De-familialization was developed through enhancement of social security for the first half of one’s life, mainly of child welfare and public education. In the late 1990s, when public debt was at its peak, the government dramatically increased financial aid for university students while cutting the budget for the elderly; the dependency ratio of the elderly population of Sweden was the highest in the world in 1995.

How did the reform of the budget system relate to the dramatic increase of the education budget? This study will clarify the peculiarities of Sweden’s reformed budget system that enabled the dramatic increase in the education budget alongside the cutting of other budgets.


7 Migrant Workers


1.Comparative analysis of the prevalence of migrant domestic workers in developed countries


Yoshinori ITO(Hitotsubashi University)


With economic and social changes in developed countries in recent years, the number of families engaging in family caregiving has decreased and there has been a shortage of care workers. However, an increase has been observed in the number of migrant domestic workers engaged in elderly care. The Japanese government has initiated studies on the entry of migrant domestic workers on the basis of the ‘Basic Policies for Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform 2014’, a cabinet decision promulgated by the government. The prevalence of migrant domestic workers varies among developed countries. Families in Southern Europe and East Asia employ many domestic workers, whereas families in Northern Europe and Oceania employ few. This study presents a comparativeanalysis to clarify the causes of such differences and to generalise factors that influence increases in the number of migrant domestic workers. In addition, this study elucidates the situation in Japan regarding migrant domestic workers. Emphasising the perspective of familialism, this study explores influences of the long-term care system, population aging, women’s employment, labour regulations, and other factors.


2.Invisiblized Foreign Care Workers – Italian ImmigrationPolicy and the Regional Policies


Rie MIYAZAKI(Ohtsuki City College)


As is the case in Japan, Italy is a super-ageing society, although the second-most important role ( after that of the immediate family ) of the main carer for the frail elderly is taken by the care workers who are a part of the household workers on the open market. Of these care workers, migrant workers account for about 90 percent, and the ratio of non-regular workers is around 60-80 percent.

In this presentation, firstly, a survey as regards the general view of the immigration policies and the social policies for these migrant care workers is implemented. Secondly, through the results of the hearing investigations conducted in 2008, 2013 and 2014, the details and the problems of the regional policies for these care workers with a special focus on matching services between workers and families who need “external” care workers will be elucidated upon.


3.Human Movement across National Borders and the Receiving of Social Benefits


Katsuaki MATSUMOTO(Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)


Nationals of EU member countries (EU citizens) have the right to move and reside in other member countries. However, it is permitted for the member countries to attach restrictions and conditions to this right.

When nationals of EU member countries move to another member country and reside there, they can generally receive the same social benefits as the citizens of that country. However, to avoid excessive financial burden on member countries, which accept nationals from other member countries, they are not responsible for providing social assistance benefits to jobless nationals of other member nations. In Germany, for example, such people do not receive basic security benefits provided to individuals seeking jobs (Hartz IV benefits). This treatment has become the object of debate.

By taking up issues such as this, this report examines the relationship between human movement that transcends national borders and the receiving of social benefits.


8 Child Welfare


1.A Study of Learning Support for the children in poverty in the Public Assistance


Satoko TANAKA(Prefectural of University of Hiroshima)


Recent studies clarify that the poverty negatively affects children’s lives in their scholastic performance, motivation and future expectation.  The purposes of our research are 1) to clarify how the children can be protected from serious childhood problems directly affected by the poverty, and 2) to understand what factors are promoting children volition to study. Our research subject is the learning support program for the 3rd. grade junior high school students in the Public Assistance in A City.

Data was obtained through participatory observation as well as staff (coordinators and university students) interviews. We will discuss the key factors affecting the children’s motivation to study and academic performance which are deeply associated with the relationship between the children and the program staffs formed through the after school activities as the learning support program in the Public Assistance.


2. Quantitative analysis of the educational and employment support in foster care facilities


Tomohiko Moriyama(Shimonoseki City University)・Junko Urasaka (Doshisha University)


The “intergenerational chain of poverty,” in which the poverty of parents results in poverty among their children, has been acknowledged as a problem in recent years. Particularly for children living in foster homes, who have not been raised by their parents for financial or similar reasons, it is important to explore the route to independence and think of ways of breaking the chain of poverty. A considerable amount of primarily fieldwork-based studies have been conducted thus far on how foster care facilities support children with regard to advancing their studies and finding employment, as well as on how the government supports such facilities in providing this support. This report employs data from 290 facilities obtained from a questionnaire survey targeting all foster care facilities, which was conducted in November 2011, to quantitatively analyze factors that determine differences in rates of enrollment in higher education and employment among such facilities. More specifically, the report clarifies how social support for educational enrollment and employment, financial aid, and assistance policies among local government bodies affect rates of enrollment in higher education and employment.


9 Medical Services


1.The Evolution of Differentiation of Medical Function and Promotion of Coordination Policy since 1980’s from the View Point of Social Learning.


Masato RYU(Graduate Student, University of Tsukuba)


Social hospitalization of the elderly people has said to be the biggest pathology in the Japanese medical supply system and it was a main policy problem to be solved for a long time. Although it was not completely solved, it is just in sight in the Ministry of Welfare (Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) having promoted differentiation of medical function and promotion of coordination policy since 1980’s. The policy consists of three points; first one is to differentiate medical function between acute care and chronic care, second one is to promote discharge by Bundled payment in revision of medical fee, third one is to provide both facility and in-home care service. This report explores about the factors that the Ministry of Welfare could promote through the view point of “Social Learning”. Mainly, by focusing on main actor, subject of social learning, Institutional and external factors to formulate social learning process. This report revealed that the Ministry of Welfare has learned the situation of European and American eldercare service and formulate the policy by adopting it to existing institution under the administrative reform since 1980’s.


2.Mutual aid societies and health care in 19th century France


Yohei KONISHI(Graduate student,Kyoto University)


The purpose of this presentation is to consider health care services and social welfare actions which mutual aid societies developed in 19th century France. They began to spread on the whole of France, and had the membership of over one million in the end of 19th century. Mutual aid societies which is one of the oldest social protections, had health care services as the principal function; therefore the expenditure of health care occupied seventy percent of all.

In this presentation, after a survey of the general characteristic of their health care services, we analyze each single society in detail. Actually, there were two type societies, sociétés de secours mutuels autorisées and sociétés de secours mutuels approuvées, in 19th century. The former is the society which prioritizes a professional interest in taking over the tradition of the guild before 19th century, the latter is the society which is called “société imperiale” and which is organized on the basis of a region rather than a profession. Focusing on this ambiguity, this presentation concretely examines their health care services.


10 Social Insurance


1.Employees’ Pension Fund Viewed from Welfare State Theory


Jun FUKUDA(Doshisha University)


In previous years, the Employees’ Pension Fund (Kousei Nenkin Kikin) was a specific institution insofar as the fund managed a part of the assets of the Welfare Pension (Kousei Nenkin). This institution was valuable for both corporate and public pensions when interest rates were high. However, this value disappeared since interest rates have decreased, while a serious conflict between affiliates and non-affiliates of the Fund also developed, which harmed small and mid-size firm administration. Here, the process through which the Employees’ Pension Fund was established and abolished is depicted using Hacker’s (2005) theory of welfare state change. In addition, the role of cognition and discourse has been emphasized in recent welfare state research, so public opinion formation is also analyzed, by text-mining for newspaper articles on the AIJ investment advisory incident at 2012 and Employees’ Pension Fund abolition at 2013, among others.


2.Social Security as the Foreign Economic Policy: the New Role of Public Pension in South Korea


Makoto INOUE(Hitotusubashi University)


This paper examines South Korea’s social security policy after the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. The Korean social security reform at the time has been seen unconventional largely due to its pro-market nature; some have argued that the new Korean social security policy can be described as ‘workfare’ or ‘welfare mix’. Owning much to the existing literature, this paper focus on the new trend in the public pension system. In 1999 the public pension system in South Korea first started its operation in the stock market in order to strengthen its financial sustainability. This move was rather unconventional, provided that the advanced welfare states’ tradition saw the stock market as the sources of instability for public social security.

Why did this happen? How has the policy formed? To better understand the nature of this process, this paper draws attention to the role of the foreign economic policy in the formation of new pension system. In doing so, it reveals that the public pension funds functioned as a long-term capital which provides stabilization of global financial markets.


3.Occupational Diseases and Social Security –A Significance of Complementary Policy for Workers’ Compensation in Act on Asbestos Health Damage Relief


Shinjiro MINAMI(Ritsumeikan University)


The purpose of this study are a clarification of a significance of complementary policy for workers’ compensation in “Act on Asbestos Health Damage Relief (Asbestos New Act)” and an examination concerning compensation and relief policy for health injury on public hygiene as a field of social security.

Recent years, asbestos diseases have been increased and Asbestos New Act was enforced from 2006 in Japan. This act has the two points of public assistance function as complementary roles of workers’ compensation. First, this act relieves the family of the deceased by asbestos who cannot claim workers’ compensation insurance by reason of negative prescription (for five years). Second, this act relieves the asbestos victims if they cannot prove a causal relation of occupational asbestos exposure, and/or they were exposed asbestos by environmental factor. This act is treated limited policy for specified diseases relief. But the contents of this act involve a significance for policy of social security and long-term (several decades, in case of asbestos) incubation period diseases.