Program of general sessions
1. Some evidence of long-term employment in prewar Japan
In this presentation, we address the question that what extent did the long-term employment practices exist in prewar Japan, and how did these practices change in the era of the war and war-damage reconstruction. For this purpose, we create a data set on the basis of the original survey sheets of Keihin manufacturing district survey initiated by Shojiro Ujihara in 1951. Original sample size was 22,318, valid responses were 14,594 and 14,278 survey sheets exist. As a result of some quantitative data analysis, we found some evidence of long-term employment practices in some large manufacturing factories in pre-war Japan, nevertheless there were large diversities in career pattern of workers according to the place of employment.
2. Development of Part-time Work in German Big Corporations
Part-time work is increasing in Germany as well as in Japan. In Germany, however, part-time work refers to regular employment with shorter working hours, whereas in Japan, part-time work is considered contingent work. German part-time regular employees receive a salary in proportion of the amount of hours they work. They have the same rights as full-time employees to take long vacations and receive paid leave, social security, and corporate benefits. They can transit from full-time to part-time work, designed to meet the needs of each employee and his/her needs for care, and return to being a full-time employee if necessary.
Part-time work in regular employment that offers the possibility of having flexible working hours is increasing in many German corporations, which is very similar to Japanese part-time jobs, which offer time flexibility for those requiring it for their family or for themselves. However, there appears to be enormous differences in the working conditions of both part-time jobs.
This study employs interviews and internal corporate materials to examine German corporations like Daimler to review the development of part-time work as regular flexible employment in German corporations.
3. The New Attempt on Organizing Irregular Workers in Korea: Focusing on the Activities of Korean Women's Trade Union for Organizing Female Irregular Workers
It is difficult to organize irregular workers, especially female irregular workers in Korea, as many of them are employed by petty enterprises, change their job frequently and enter and leave the labor market according to economic fluctuations. Therefore Korean Women's Trade Union (KWTU) has tried to build the new model of a trade union and the new idea of a labor movement which are different from them of the enterprise unions for male regular workers in order to organize female irregular workers who have been excluded from all the welfare system. While the enterprise unions have concentrated on protecting employment and improving labor conditions of the union members at each workplace, KWTU has tried to link labor with welfare on the base of a local community and expand the sphere of its activity into improving the quality of life of "the social vulnerable strata" and providing them with the social welfare. KWTU has tried to construct a welfare community based on a local community obtaining the support from the local government and the citizens' organizations. In this presentation, we consider the activity of KWTU through mutual aid society as a concrete case and the implication of it.
1. A study on the Social Worker Education in Japan and Taiwan
This research aimed to clarify the history background of the social worker education in Japan and Taiwan. This research adopted the case study method to review the official documents and universities' portfolios. In addition, the universities' curriculum, the role of the universities, the access to social worker license through national examination, and current employment status had been analyzed.
Secondly, in order to find out the differences of social worker education system between Japan and Taiwan, and to have a better understanding of the system in both countries, this research reviewed the relevant theses and newspapers. Afterward, the changes of social worker education system in Japan and Taiwan had been analyzed based on the document review.
In the social worker education system of both countries, professionalism is developed through practical training. The purpose of the social worker education is to develop social workers with practical skills and fieldwork experiences. The advice for further research is to exam the affections of university education on social workers.
2. Comparison of Individual Labor Dispute Between China and Japan -Focusing on Workers' Organizations
Since the 1990s, number of individual labor disputes had been increased year by year in China, and it reached a peak of more than 670 thousand in 2008. Japan is also facing a similar situation, and its dispute numbers reached to 1 million 110 thousand in 2011. For both countries, solving the disputes became an urgent issue. The purpose of my presentation is to answer the two questions below. a) What is the role of trade union in individual labor dispute. b) What can China learn from Japan about the dispute resolution system.
3. The life after The Great Tohoku Earthquake of Chinese technical interns and Southeast Asia technical interns.
In this paper, I examine the lives of technical interns in Japan from China, particularly those who went back to China after the Great Tohoku Earthquake. In addition, I survey the lives of technical interns in Southeast Asia, especially from Indonesia, whose number has been increasing recently. According to the data, technical interns from Indonesia do not represent the only large group of interns, with interns from Vietnam and Thailand also having a large representation. But interns from Indonesia are unique for a number of problems that are associated with their Islam religion. In particular, due to the religious habit of many Indonesians, prayer time is essential. In addition, they do not eat pork. Though these two problems are not large at present, they are likely to become more significant with increasing number of these trainees in Japan.
1. The Quality of the Public Vocational Training Established by Local Governments and the Desirable Situation in the Future - With a Focus on Osaka Prefectural Polytechnic Schools
After the financial crisis in 2008, the number of public vocational training schools was increased and a new public vocational training system called "support training for job seekers" was introduced. Most of the training periods are too short to enable jobseekers to gain high levels that would allow them to find jobs with good working conditions. So this report focuses on Osaka prefectural polytechnic schools which have longer training programs.
I examine the quality of the training in terms of the quality of career guidance, and the quality of the jobs found by students nearing graduation. To verify these I interviewed officials in charge of the polytechnic schools and the teachers in these schools. In addition, I made a questionnaire survey to obtain more specific data on trainees.
The report attempts to point out some problems in public vocational training and to discuss possible improvements through examination of training in Osaka.
2. Towards the integrated reforms of labor market, higher education and vocational education and training
Human resources development in Japan, until now, has deeply depended on forms' training and employees' self-development for long periods, reflecting Japanese long-term employment system. Vocational education has low expectation in business world. Public vocational training has focused only on complementary fields ,for example, pre-entry training of young people and
career-change training of displaced workers. Growth of Nom-regular employees and progress in rapid aging, however, urge Japanese Government to develop skill development outside firms. Tackling and realizing integrated reforms of labor market, higher education, and vocational education and training (VET) becomes an urgent and important task for Japan. The reforms include the following issues:
3. Succession of Construction Engineer's Intuition
This study purports to analyze the process of passing the experiences and know-how of veteran engineers to younger ones in construction firms in Japan. It is evident that many experienced and veteran engineers are approaching their mandatory retirement age and there is a significant vacuum in passing adequately their cutting-edge knowledge, acclaimed expertise, and practical wisdom onto the engineers of younger generation. Given these circumstances, this study addresses two issues i.e., what kind of experiences and know-how should be handed down and how young engineers acquire them.
The intuition of experienced engineers makes the nucleus of the first issue. They have accumulated a variety of experiences throughout their long tenure of service so these engineers are able to find out solutions for new problems occurred at a glance. Unarguably, this kind of intuition needs to be handed down to young engineers.
The second issue, how young engineers acquire experiences and know-how of veteran engineers, could be dealt with by employing "task-skill list" which illustrates a procedure of a certain construction work. Young engineers are able to obtain a full picture of a work by using task-skill list and it also makes easier for them to understand the meaning of each task. Moreover, with the help of task-skill list, young engineers could acquire efficiently experiences.
The data generated by interviewing construction engineers are used for addressing two issues raised in this study.
1. Actual practice of institutional care toward psychiatric patients by Poor Relief Law and its historical consideration
Now Japan has more than 300,000 psychiatric beds, and its rapid increase after the WW2 was established mainly by the two public fund investments. One of them is the involuntary admission under the Mental Hygiene Act and the other is the medical aid admission under the Public Assistance Act. During the 1960's and 70's, the so-called expansion era of mental hospitals, about 70 to 80% of all the inpatients were patients of those acts.
In my presentation, I will try to show how the medical aid admission under the Poor Relief Act, the origin of the Public Assistance Act, in prewar Japan was operated. The primary administrative documents preserved in Kawasaki City Archives are the main source materials for the analysis. These materials contain more than 100 psychiatric patients' information, and clearly demonstrate the real practices of the institutional aid by the Poor Relief Act.
Bringing light to the real treatment of psychiatric patient under the Poor Relief Act, it is possible to understand why the medical aid admission created the large-scale hospitalization in postwar period.
2. Why is normal labor not covered in kind by health insurance?
Today, in Japan, while most labor and treatment for disease can both take place at the same medical institution, labor is not covered in kind, while disease is. The reason often provided for this is that "labor is not a disease". However, labor has physical and social risks as high as those of any disease. In addition, cost gaps exist in the payment of pregnant mothers' expenses across regions and hospitals and depending on whether the labor is "normal" or "abnormal." This study examines why normal labor was not covered in kind by health insurance throughout the history of delivery allowance. The results showed that labor, like disease, was deemed to be an insurable risk from the time the concept of health insurance was established, although the method of payment then was different because of disparities between medical provisions for labor and disease. Additionally, when the concept of health insurance was established, cash benefits provided for labor were in keeping with the social conditions regarding labor at the time. This may have led to various problems that continue to persist because the government has not modified existing laws pertaining to health insurance in accordance with changes in social conditions.
1. The Collaboration of Prefecture of Yamaguchi and NPO in DV measure.
NPO is in collaboration with Yamaguchi Prefecture in its DV measure. This is a study of the collaboration through attention of both NPO and Yamaguchi Prefecture, with comparing NPO's action and financial condition of 2009, and 2011.
The verification is the same with what Japan NPO Center's examination of entrusting by both national and local governments, in 2003.
The examination is by 1) Effect to NPOs' mission, 2) Financial condition, 3) Management, 4) Social Influence, and 5) Advocacy. In the analysis of the examination in 2003, all of 1) to 5) are indicating that NPOs are not being just a subcontract, but exceedingly effective for NPOs.
In this NPO, it is effective to be entrusted, especially financial condition. It is a financial stability that makes easier recruiting and promoting specialty.
2. Changing Public-Private Sphere in Life-supportive Services in the Aftermath of the 3.11-Community Comprehensive Care Refurbished-
New sphere of public-private relation in life-supportive health and social service functions has been emerging in the aftermath of the 3.11 catastrophe, in which the theoretical shift from those already established disciplines concerning community based interpretation of social governance with the rebels of substitutionality for the municipal-local social administrative roles and of comprehensive value target of coping with "hardships" in life and daily living. The presentation and manuscript paper is going to discuss based on the evidences from several frontline cases the theoretical implications of the new emerging social functions in the context of the theories of the public and in terms of the publicity of intermediateary social organizations.
3. The research about "creation" of employment opportunities for young people and a business of the Glocalization
The purpose of this research is intended to clarify the mother house's efforts. The mother house Working as the Glocalization will play with "creation" of youth employment opportunities in Japan. First, it is positioned as the social enterprise against the Mother House has developed for a textile business on poor areas of Bangladesh. But they say to must be distinguished from social enterprise. The core of this study is to clear that. In addition, there are the challenges of youth employment opportunities in Japan. The second aspect is two points called "a traditional Japanese employment practices" and "system of conflict between youth and elderly." there are implication once they offer an assignment of youth employment opportunities of our country from such a viewpoint.
To clarify the relationship between the Glocalization and creation of youth employment opportunities. And then, I will consider the perspective of "high added value" and "Week Tides", "job security" against perceptions of the Mother House. I need to show policies and discuss the prospects of "creation" for employment opportunities for young people in Japan.
1. Impacts of Tax and Social Security Contributions on the Family Budgets in Japan
This study investigates the impacts of tax and social security contributions on the family budgets by different types of household and income level, compared with the other advanced countries. We find that as a whole Japanese tax and social security payment is more regressive, put heavier financial burden on lower income household, and creates poverty trap of public assistance recipients. It is likely that these features of Japanese system reduce work incentives of working poor. These issues are caused by a dual structure of Japanese social insurance system, which consists of employee and local social insurance, and inconsistency at exemption level of tax and social insurance contributions, which most OECD reports do not focus on in their international comparative studies and hence fail to find these features of Japanese system. Although most of recent discussion on the social insurance reform in Japan, especially in the field of economics, focus on intergenerational inequalities, these features are rather related with intragerational one.
2. Analysis of the cooperation system of RSA - Case of the independent support organizations of Paris -
There are some studies on independence support of French social assistance (Revenu de Solidarit? Active, RSA). These studies exclusively pay attention to the construction and effects of "the exit"of this support. This certainly is important to the point, but it arguably is also essential to clarify about the process before reaching "the exit", thereby the perspectives of the RSA will become clear.
In this report, an analysis of support systems of Paris from "the entrance" to "the exit", which is based on my field work in Paris, is presented so as to make suggestions for Japanese policy measures. Specifically I will report on @ a transition process for which a new independent support system reabsorbs existing organizations, A a form of mutual coordination for distinctive independent support organizations ( such as local government, job placement offices, NPOs, etc.) build a cooperation system, and B characteristic cases of individual supports through the independent support organizations.
3. Public Support for higher education-from the point of view of employment support-
Since the 1990's , enterprises and industries seem to make more demands on university graduates entering the labor market in Japan than in the past, by the deterioration of the employment situation, the progress of globalization, the informationalization and so on.
On the other hand, from the international point of view, the level of public expenditure on higher education is so low in Japan, that students and their families are forced to take a lot of individual expenditure in order to achieve the level of human capacities required by the demand side.
If requests of the demand side will be further enhanced, without drastic corrective measures against economic burden of students and parents, such as reduction or exemption of tuition, scholarship, youths and their families who can not tolerate the educational burden could be subject to the social exclusion.
In this report, we view the current status of educational expenditure until graduates manage to get employment, examine the measures taken by the government and educational institutions and consider challenges for the future.
1. Tomoichi Inoue: The Organizer of Local Leaders and Welfare Activists
Most researchers considered Tomoichi Inoue (1871-1919) to be a haughty national bureaucrat, whereas some saw him a guardian angel for commoners. I try to integrate these conflicting images.
Returning from the ten-month tour of inspection in Europe and America (1900-1901), Inoue promoted social work, as well as moral improvement movement (Hotoku Undo) in tandem with part-time researcher Tomeoka Kosuke (1864-1934). From 1909, when the Local Improvement Movement started, Inoue invited young bureaucrats and local leaders to brown-bag meetings and lectures held at the part-time researchers' room, a.k.a. 'Local Bureau dining hall.'
Tomeoka and other researchers regarded Inoue an uncommon bureaucrat who endeavoured to make close contact with local leaders and welfare activists. Indeed, Inoue Tomoichi was the leading bureaucrat who organized them for public welfare.
2. Reconsideration of debates on the concept of social policy in Japan
Social policy studies converged with research on labor relations through debates on the concept of social policy in the 1950s. The debates regarded the "Productivity Theory" advocated by Kazuo Okochi, an authority on social policy studies in Japan until the 1970s.
In contrast, specialists on population problems such as Yasuma Takata, Toru Nagai, and Juitsu Kitaoka argued about the relationship between population problems and social policy in prewar Japan. In particular, Nagai and Kitaoka pioneered population policy as social policy in the era of surplus population.
It is important to know that the concept of social policy took shape through dealing with population problems. This viewpoint will lead to reconsideration of the debates on the concept of social policy.
3. An ethic on carers
The studies on carers began in late 1930s and gradually the gender issues have been integrated into studies since 1978.The history of the carers' movement could be traced back in 1935 and it resumed in 1963 after the World War II. The first international movement was observed in 1998 by carers.
The proper understanding on the history as well as the previous studies is critical when conducting the studies on carers today. However, the paper entitled " research about domestic and international studies on caring influenced by feminists " published in the Journal of Social Policy and labor Studies does dot discuss any issues of gender differences in the health of carers. In addition, there are two clear misunderstanding of facts in the said paper.
This paper aims to clarify these misunderstndings and enhance the proper understandings of the studies of carers and the carers' movement both in Japan and other countries.