１ Main challenges and their countermeasures on Human resource development in Japan
（Katsuhiko Iwata, Polytechnic University）
“Japan’s Industrial Revitalization Plan” in ”Growth strategy” which the Japanese government published this June puts forward the activation of human resources and the reform of Japanese employment system. The measures in the skill development field include as the bold money sift from employment adjustment subsidy for employment maintenance to the subsidy supporting smooth labor movement by skill development, the review of employment insurance scheme for promoting re-learning of working people, and fully using of private human resources business. It is very important for Japan to build the life-long learning strategy and life-long employment strategy (one of its main pillars is the formulation of Japanese Qualifications Framework) immediately towards using young people, women, older people and the persons of disabilities to the full. The government’s plan is reviewed based on this point of view.
２ Structure and dynamics of regional labor markets in the light of labor mobility: The case of Japanese new high school graduates
（Katsuhide Isa, Seinan Gakuin University）
This paper investigates the evolution of inter-prefecture mobility among new high school graduates, using long-term data from MEXT’s School Basic Survey. At a national level, inter-prefecture mobility rate, range of mobility and mobility distance among new graduates have been all in decline. At a regional level, however, the situation is uneven. Specifically, disparity among prefectures can be seen with respect to these measures even within the same regions. Besides, population influx/outflux disparity also exists across the nation, which could be represented by such terminology as ‘labor supply prefectures’ (mainly located in Kyushu and Tohoku) regions and ‘labor demand prefectures’ (mainly three metropolitan areas). The above situation has been attenuated gradually over the past few decades, due to the less influx of population into three metropolitan areas and the growth of ‘core regional labor markets’ and so on. But new graduates in specific regions still have to migrate to distant prefectures, which implies they have to bear relatively heavier mobility costs. Based on these fact-findings, this paper indicates, among others, the importance of the maintenance and further development of ‘core regional labor markets’ as its policy recommendation.
３ Technological Change and Labour Market Outcomes
（Yoshihiko Fukushima, Waseda University）
The paper investigates how technological changes (technological improvement) affect employment, wages, and unemployment in a labour market. Labour demand by new technologies may be different from the old technologies. Namely, needed labour labour force and needed labour skill are different after new production function is implemented. However, an introduction of new technology does not always imply a decrease in employment. The impact of the new technology on employment depends on the characteristics of the new technology, i.e., labour complementary technology or labour substitute (replacing) technology. Moreover, if the new technology substitutes (complements) labour, the wage tends to decrease (increase). The paper examines macroeconomic effects of new technologies on the labour market in a general equilibrium framework.
１ The Historical Development of Anti-poverty Policy for the Low-income group and the Policy-Assessment in Korea
（Yuki Tomooka、EWHA womans university）
Since the economic crisis in 1998, the emphasis of the anti-poverty policy in Korea has been significantly shifted from only the income security to the workfare which requires some work or attendance for the vocational training and education in order to gain income security. We call it the labor-integrated welfare system. As a result, the target of the policy has been extended to the working poor mainly consisted of women and young people who were difficult to enter into the labor market because of the shortage of skill and whose income could not reach to the lowest living standard level because of the unstable employment and the low wage. Since then, the anti-poverty policy in Korea has evolved from the workfare type welfare system as a starting point into a public labor projects and social enterprises. These policies have the common purposes to create jobs and support the working poor’s re-integrating into the labor market.
This presentation tries to clarify the actual situation of working poor in Korea and to examine the historical background of the introduction of each policy by focusing on the relation between the administration and the civic organizations like the NPO. Especially, by historically considering the continuity and complement or the discontinuity between each policy, we can clearly find the meanings of each policy and the problems of it.
２ A Turning Point in Korean Social Enterprise (SE) Policy and Its Implications: The Case of ‘The 2nd SE Promotion Plans’
（Hong Sungwook, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies）
Social Enterprise (SE) Promotion Act (1 July 2007) is a South Korean state-led policy, which has focused more on grant for labour costs from the government rather than the original implications: civil autonomy and independency. Despite the people’s concern about the issue, the importance of SEs on providing social welfare services and jobs to the vulnerable has drawn increasing recognition from the public since the public sector has shown limitations in its direct support to be provided where it is needed.
‘The 2nd SE Promotion Plans’ issued by Korean Ministry of Employment and Labour (MOEL) in December 2012 includes cutting off direct subsidiaries and increasing indirect supports to ferment “ecology of SE” such as social investments and opening up markets for SE. The purpose of the MOEL seems to be the improvement of economic competitiveness of SEs and forming a specific market.
What is happening on management of SEs in South Korea by changes of the policy above? This study introduces changes of SE policy and its implications, as well as it analyses consistency between policy goals and objects. Data examined in this study include up-to-date information on related policies, laws and interviews with social entrepreneurs in South Korea.
３ The Possibility of the “Universal Pension in China” from the view of “moderation” and “universality”
（Yu Yang, JOSAI UNIVERSITY）
Nowadays, the argument about the characteristic Chinese welfare model which is called “moderate and universal welfare” attracts attention from inside and outside of China. The contents of the model probably mean that at present, the contents and the level of social security should be suitable for the level of economic growth, it should be a system of basic life security to all people.
However, until now, there are any analysis which can be convinced how an economic standard could be matched with the contents and the level of social security system. Moreover, if in the United States which is the biggest economic power, people are not necessarily provided with the social security corresponding to its economic standard.
In this paper, I would like to use the measure of “moderation” and “universality” to estimate the “universal pension in China” which is advanced by the Chinese government, from both sides of contribution and benefit.
１ Continuous relation support in former prisoners’ social rehabilitation
（Park Heesook, Asahikawa University）
Former prisoners’ social rehabilitation is not immediately completed by being released from a correctional institution. Work and family become important factors in former prisoners’ social rehabilitation. But, in the case of elderly people or disabled persons, the source of work and family are very insufficient.
Recent cooperation between correctional institutions and welfare systems is an epoch-making measure for supporting social rehabilitation of elderly people and disabled persons. For former prisoners’ social rehabilitation, continuous relation support is indispensable. This report explores the necessity and method of continuous relation support for former prisoners’ social rehabilitation.
２ Effects of a local government program that provides a place for daytime activities of older people: A case from Hokkaido
（Yumika Shirase, National Institute of Population& Social Security Research
・Yui Ohtsu，Keio University）
Numerous attempts have been rendered by local governments to prevent isolation and promote the health and well-being of older people in Japan. Abashiri City in Hokkaido prefecture started a program to provide a place for daytime activities of older people in 2000. The place is called Fureai-no-ie, where neighborhood volunteers organize a group for social activities. It is subsidized by the local government as part of its preventive long-term care program. Currently, 13 groups are established in the entire city. These groups hold a session to encourage recreation and physical exercise once a week. This study aims to review the development of the program and examine its intention and effects. First, the paper explores the history and current management issues of Fureai-no-ie based on participant observations, interviews with neighborhood volunteers and local welfare department officials, and related documents. Second, with reference to a questionnaire survey on daily life and health of senior citizens in the city, this work analyzed the functions and effects of the program. Finally, this research discusses the outcomes and effects of the program on the community and the daily life of older people who have participated in the program.
３ Investigation of social policy for inpatients of mental disorder – from the perspective of Pharmacotherapy outcomes
（Hiroki Konno, International University of Health and Welfare）
In recent years, we have a tendency to increase the patients of mental disorder. It is said that most of suicide are melancholic or depressed. This paper shows a difference of the hospital staying probability for inpatients that are prescribed drugs by using Survival Analysis. If a difference of prescribed drugs is connected with a term of the hospital staying, it is necessary to standardize the remedy of psychiatric care in Japan.
We got 155inpatients DATA, and counted 1858DATA. Average of hospital staying of that is 17.7days. 63% of inpatients left hospital within 2weeks. We analyzed the hospital staying probability as middle classification of drugs. We had a similar tendency for 6middle classification of drugs, but we had a difference tendency for 4large classification of drugs.
In conclusion, a difference of prescribed drugs was connected with a term of the hospital staying. It is necessary to standardize the remedy of psychiatric care.
１ Austrian Initiatives: Social Security and Free Movement of Workers from New European Union Member States
（Katsuaki Matsumoto, Hokkaido University）
In 2004, Austria established a seven-year restriction on the movement of workers from new European Union (EU) member states. However, the lapse of this regulation in 2011 has provided certain freedom of movement for workers from new member states (identical to that of workers from traditional member states), thus enabling them to work in Austria without first obtaining a work permit.
It was expected that this change would result in a large flow of labor from new EU member states and such laborers would work outside the social insurance system and for wages below the minimum wage. In response, a law was enacted to stipulate comprehensive measures designed to prevent such situations.
This study examines the contents of these enacted measures, their effects, and the resulting issues. In addition, it focuses on the movement of specialist professionals within the field of social welfare (i.e., physicians and nurses) and investigates the current situation regarding the mutual recognition of qualifications, which carries significant weight for such professionals seeking work in Austria.
２ Netherlands’ Efforts in the U.S.-Led Anti-Trafficking Measures
（Ayako Sasaki, Chiba University）
Since “trafficking in persons” is recognized as a serious global issue, the Trafficking in Person’s (TIP) Report, annually issued by the U.S. Department of State, provides information on the extent to which a nation’s anti-trafficking efforts have fulfilled its obligations and/or whether this is relatively reasonable within the international society. Although some criticize the report for its diplomacy and the “Tier” placing method, there is no other document that describes every nation’s comprehensive anti-trafficking efforts and shows their changes over the years. This research will use the TIP Reports published over the past 12 years as a main resource and will focus on Netherland’s anti-trafficking efforts built on the legalization of prostitution—unlike the case of the U.S. and other high Tier ranking countries—to elucidate the U.S. high-ranking points and their outcomes in the international society.
３ Britain’s University Reforms and Education Gap under the Cameron Government: On the Problems of Education Marketisation
（Tomoyuki Arai, Chuo University）
This paper examines the increasing education gap in Britain after the poll on student tuition fees on 9 December 2010 that led to increases in tuition fees. While many university students face huge student debt, the Cameron administration keeps insisting on the advantage of increased tuition fees: improvements in the quality of education.
Considering the arguments in Britain on high tuition fees during 2011, I will argue that a two-tier system of rich students and poor students has emerged in the UK. Focusing on public university reforms which put students at the heart of the financing system, I attempt to explain some problems due to the marketisation of education. Moreover, I will try to discuss whether the reforms proposed by the government are fair for all students.
Last, I assess Scottish universities that have recently increased tuition fees for non-Scot students and the education gap therein. To clarify this further, I provide the fieldwork I did in a modern university in Scotland that had to set such high fees.
１ An observation based on a Japan – US comparison of women working in businesses aiming to contribute to the society
（Noriko Suzuki, Yokohama National University）
In the recent years, the number of women working and earning income in NPO, companies or organizations aiming to solve social challenges are gradually increasing. But then, in nonprofit organization activities such as volunteers and NPOs including community activities have always had significant female presence, and many women take active role in variety of forms.
Women who work in organizations that aims to contribute to the society while earning sales revenues and expanding business continuously, are analyzed in this report, rather than women who are being active on volunteer basis. The report carries out a comparative study on the way of working for such women using interview results obtained from Japan and US. The main focal points are (1) motive, (2) hiring process, (3) skills and experiences relating to the work function, (4) work details and difficulties, and (6) future aspirations. Through analysis of the above, this report will clarify the commonalities and differences between the two countries, and consider the future directions for Japan.
２ An Analysis of Factors in Taking Child Care Leave
（Mayumi Nishimoto, Hannan University）
The child care leave system is an example of a system designed to promote a better balance between parenting and work for workers with children. Under this system, workers with children of preschool age or younger can apply to their employers for leave to care for children who are sick or injured. Workers may annually take up to five days of leave for one child or up to ten days of leave for two or more children. The percentage of employers instituting a care leave system has seen an increasing trend: from 10.3% in 2002 to 26.5% in 2004, 33.8% in 2005, and 46.2% in 2008. However, the actual percentage of parents taking leave, as well as the average number of days taken, varies by enterprise.
To investigate the factors behind these variances, this report analyzes the percentage of workers with children of pre-elementary-school age who have taken care leave and the average number of days taken by these workers, using individual data from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare’s “Heisei 20 Nendo Koyou Kintou Kihon Chousa” (“2008 Basic Survey of Equal Employment Opportunity”).
３ Cross-national comparative analysis of the transitionroutes from the male breadwinner model.
（Hiromi Tanaka, Doshisha University）
The male breadwinner model as the normative livelihood security system has increasingly been the target of restructure in many developed countries whereregular and full male employment and a stable family have faced erosion. Since2000s in particular, the transnational organisations such as the EU and the OECDhave been proposing guidelines aimed at improving female labour market participation, work-life balance policies and childcare support.
This presentation will examine the ways in which each country has attempted to
transform the male breadwinner model within such international policy trends and to
what extent commonalities and diversities can be seen. It will conduct a crossnational
analysis on each countries’ policy formulations, focusing on the European countries (Scandinavian, Central and South) and East Asian countries, including Japan at the period of the end of 1990s to 2000s. This will enable us to grasp, through the analysis of the quantitive data in the fields of care, work and welfare as well as the survey of the latest case studies, the variations of the dynamic transition route which cannot be fully captured by the welfare regime typology.
１ Job Evaluation Program designed for Pay Equity: Present Stage of its Research and Development
（Koshi Endo, Meiji University）
If we can get easily the job evaluation points through the job evaluation program based on pay equity principle, we will be able to make the most of these job evaluation points to improve the poor treatment of non-standard employees as well as female employees and to achieve the equal treatment of all employees in the end. A team led by Endo, at the request of JICHIRO or All-Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers Union, had worked in the research and development of feasible job evaluation program based on pay equity principle and accomplished it finally. The report of our research and development titled tentatively “Job Evaluation Program designed for Pay Equity” edited by Endo, added by appendices of “Job Evaluation Factors Description” and “Job Evaluation Questionnaires,” will come out in September 2013. Endo speaks on our research and development of job evaluation program.
２ Invention Royalties of employed scientists: A Case study of Bayer
（Fumiki Ishizuka, Seinan-Gakuin University）
The rapid growth of German chemical firms until outbreak of the WWI had mainly owed to the inventions made by employed scientists (above all chemists). The employers of such firms tried to motivate their inventive scientists through entitlement of invention royalties based on individualized profit-sharing as an important monetary incentive. But the fact that more and more chemical firms tended to produce with large-scaled production facilities made it impossible to calculate exact individual contribution of each scientist to inventions or products realized by team-work of the whole inventive stuffs, which compelled the employers to rethink about distribution rule of traditional invention royalties. In this presentation, based on the analysis of historical materials of Bayer Ltd., I want to argue how German chemical firm elaborated a new form of inventive royalties from the 1900s through the 1970s in order to meet the demand of the times. I hope that the present study could deliver some findings which enable us to consider a sustainable solution for distribution conflict between employers and inventors.
３ An analysis of factors which have an influence on the wage profile and the combination of occupations and the market types
（Takeshi Nishimura, Kyoto University）
In Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis, Peter B. Doeringer and Michael J. Piore revealed that the internal labor market can be divided into two sectors, the enterprise market and the craft market, and also there is the competitive market around them. Especially about the wage system, they mentioned that it is influenced by certain rules or customs which are peculiar to each enterprise or occupation in the internal labor market though there is no rule in the competitive market. Preceding studies have been analyzed factors that have an influence on the wage profile of occupations classified into major groups, but the influence on occupations of minor groups has not been adequately examined. In this presentation, especially focusing on professional workers we discuss the combination of occupations and the market types in Japan by using data of Basic Survey on Wage Structure.
１ The Establishment Process of the Disability Pension in the War
（Itsuro Mitsuda, Ritsumeikan University）
The original institutionalizing of the pension system in Japan, to which the employees in private companies are entitled, is combined in the Seamen’s Insurance Law, which was enacted in March, 1939. It targeted workers on the sea, sailors. It is acknowledged as a comprehensive social insurance system, offering the old-age and the disability pension as well as medical system, only no pension for bereaved families. However the purpose of the pension system is not to secure employees’ income at when aged or disabled, as OGAWA Masaaki points out that the direct reason for the establishment is to maintain the labor power of sea crew during wartime.
The main topic of this article is to discuss the reasons for the institutionalization of the disability pension. We draw the conclusion that, the pension system was institutionalized due to the Pension Law amendment, the enlargement of military protection undertaking and the exemption from the responsibility of ship owners for employment during wartime, as well as the necessity of the trial enforcing of a pension system for general employers. It embraced several problems such as strict conditions for receipt, expensive insurance premium and low pension allowance.
２ A History and Actual Conditions of Japanese Asbestos Work-related Measures in 1970-2004
（Shinjiro Minami，Ritsumeikan University）
The purpose of this study is a clarification of policy topics for work-related injury prevention by a case of asbestos disaster and its measures.
In Japan, asbestos use was permitted in principle until 2004, and an outbreak of asbestos disaster became an issue of public concern. Asbestos toxicity (carcinogenicity) was recognized no later than 1970. Labor hygiene regulations as to asbestos were established in the first half of 1970s (for example, The 1971 Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances). However, these regulations were imperfect, sectional, and not necessarily effective measures. I examine the actual conditions of these asbestos work-related measures from 1970 to 2004.
１Equality Transcending Equitability: A Study on the Fundamentals of Reciprocity-Oriented Institutions
（Takahashi Satoshi, Iwate Prefectural University）
Social policies that have as their starting point an inequality in the circumstances of constituent members and attempts to confer such policies with a foundation based on social compact theory run into fundamental difficulties when it is claimed that the rationale for the validity of an institution must come from the fairness conferred to all people, and that engagement and participation of individuals in the institution must be of a voluntary nature (based on a recognition of personal benefits). This issue has been discussed in the frameworks of social fairness, publicness and reciprocity. There are two approaches to countering the fact that the existence of equality between individuals cannot be used as a rationale: one is to limit the scope of the equitable dimension, and the other is to concede to a degree of compromise and give the institution itself a composition that supports an appropriate degree of equity.
In this report, we present a discussion based on the latter approach that is oriented towards specifically developing an institutional policy from a design theory standpoint. First, we discuss an “institutional model based on public reciprocity” as an example of a method for conceptualizing institutional models that represent reciprocity. We then position this model within the framework of the definition of the above approach to compare it with various other ideas, and follow this with an examination of the institutional conditions that relate to enhancing the connectivity within the temporal and spatial dimensions, which poses challenges in terms of increasing the degree of substantive equity. Lastly, we discuss the expansion of possibilities of institutional models oriented towards reciprocity.
２ Mutual aid societies and health care under the Second French Empire
（Yohei Konishi, Kyoto University）
The purpose of this presentation is to consider the contribution of mutual aid societies to health care system under the Second French Empire. The law Le Chapelier prohibiting the organization of trade associations after the French Revolution of 1789, the intermediate groups between individual and state become extinct. In addition to this, the French society become gradually impoverished by the rapid industrialization and the epidemic. It is a mutual aid society that was approved as the establishment of the public interest under this situation. Mutual aid societies as intermediate group have developed rapidly since the start of Second Empire. In the latter half of 19th century, mutual aid societies had a membership of over one million. Mutual aid societies which provision a variety of allowances have especially medical benefits as a main function. Mutual aid societies didn’t only pay allowances, but also permitted people to access to medical services. This presentation examines social welfare activities proper to mutual aid societies, focusing on Second French Empire where health care services began to be systematized.
（Yuka Uzuki, National Institute for Educational Policy Research）
Childhood poverty is of concern in Japan, because it not only damages the current well-being of children, but also increases the risk of experiencing poverty in adulthood. In the previous literature mainly from the UK and the US, several competing models have been discussed in order to understand mechanisms underlying intergenerational persistence of poverty, and different models have led to different policy implications. It takes empirical evidence to examine which intervention is more effective in improving the life chances of children growing up in poverty, directly transferring income to low-income households, providing benefits in kind or vouchers, increasing employment and wages for parents, or addressing needs derived from other household circumstances than low income. However, relevant evidence has been scarce in Japan. This study analyses the effects of household income on time spent on study outside school by 14- or 15-year-old children in the final year of compulsory education, by using data from a Japanese national survey of parents’ and children’s attitudes and behaviour conducted by the Cabinet Office in 2011. It attempts to investigate the effectiveness of the provision of vouchers for out-of-school learning that aims to reduce inequality in educational opportunity.
２ Challenges of After-School Programs for Children in Small Rural Cities in Japan
（Madoka Kato, Fukui Prefectural University）
Attention on after-school programs is usually focused on issues surrounding the large number of school children on waiting lists for after school child care in urban cities in Japan. However, in provincial areas, where the decline in population is continuing, the environment for child care is changing and measures taken to provide for children after school hours is an important issue to tackle. This report addresses the measures taken to provide for children after school hours in a rural small city, City A, located in the Hokuriku region. City A is taking a proactive approach to supportive child care, by implementing a system in which every child from the first to sixth grade in elementary school can utilize, without cost, the facilities after school on weekdays, Saturdays, and during long holidays. Children can utilize the facilities as after-school care centers (gakudo-hoiku) or as children’s centers (jido-kan). The current situation and challenges of providing after-school programs in small rural towns and cities are examined, based on interviews with children’s center staff and the responsible city departments in City A. Taking into account the advantages and benefits of small-scale operations, measures to enrich children’s after school activities with the collaboration of different community organizations are discussed.
３ A study of the history of foster care in post-war Japan
（Shimomura Isao, Rikkyo University）
As a system of child protection, foster care has become mainstream in Western Europe, Oceania and North America.
Currently, the Japanese government allows the deployment of staff to promote a system foster care in children’s homes and child guidance centers but still, about 90% of children in care are unable to access it.
Immediately after the end of the World War II, under the leadership of the GHQ and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, a system of foster care was put in place. The number of children in foster care peaked in 1958 and since then, growth has remained stagnant.
Why has foster care in Japan remained on the fringes? This paper will consider the impact social welfare worker leaders had on the child care decision-making process by examining papers from that time.
１ An Exploration of the Variables for Quantitative Analysis and International Comparison of the Working Poor – Using U.S. microdata
（Masatoshi Murakami,Kansai University）
This research highlight the parameters associated with the working poor and its quantitative analysis on the presumption that the working poor are compared internationally. Using microdata provided by Minnesota Population Center, the parameters are examined as preliminary steps for quantitative analysis of the working poor in Japan using Japanese microdata.
In this regard, firstly, it requires consideration of statistical nature in each country. Secondly, it requires the careful selection of statistics that have international comparability. Finally, it is needed to define the limits and potential of international “the working poor” comparison.
In this research, in light of the above description, quantitative analysis of the working poor is undertaken using variables that are required in international “the working poor” comparison. After that, this research shows the results of analysis and refers to the tasks ahead.
２ Why did homelessness rose in Japan? : Readdressing the causal question
（Hasegawa Miki, Tokiwa University）
While much literature exists on issues of homelessness, only a small portion deals with the question of why homelessness rose in the first place. The purpose of the present study is to identify and examine main approaches to the why question and propose a fuller account of increased homelessness.
Conventional causal arguments either focus on changes in the yoseba system or refer to broader structural changes without enough empirical verification. This study puts together these writings into a single analytical framework and, with empirical data, shows how deindustrialization, urban redevelopment, and government policy shifts to deregulation and privatization—all associated with economic globalization—paved the way to increased homelessness and how similar processes operated in the yoseba system as well.
３ Time-series analysis of employment insurance beneficiaries percentage
（Jun Fukuda, Kyoto University）
Employment Insurance beneficiary ratio (beneficiaries / unemployment) is an important indicator to determine safety net as to whether or not functioning. Decrease in the rate of receipt as it may be to increase the burden on livelihood protection. I considered beneficiaries rate is affected turnover unemployment rate (unemployed who were employees former / unemployed ), long-term unemployment rate, non-regular ratio, and insurance rate. It is considered to be effective for insurance rate and turnover unemployment rate to increase beneficiary ratio, while it is believed to be effective for non-regular ratio and long-term unemployment rate to lower beneficiary ratio. In this report, using the error correction techniques model using autoregressive vector (VECM), to analyze the determinants of receiving rate while overcoming the problem of serial correlation. By calculating the cumulative impulse response function further, to clarify shock such as unemployment rate are to bring in the long run what effect against receiving rate.
Coordinator: Yuko Tamiya（Kobegakuin University）
In this panel, we will explore the medium-and long-term effects of a disaster and the functions of social security system on vulnerable people’s daily life by using qualitative data. According to previous literature, vulnerability defined by social characteristics such as gender, socio-economic status and disability has affected people’s capacity to resist and recover from the impacts of a disaster (Wisner; 2004=2010). There is concern that people who have a high degree of vulnerability might cause not only significant damage right after a disaster but consistent poverty under difficult circumstances.
The first and the second paper focusing on lone mothers and disabled people examine how the earthquake affected their living and how social security system functioned. The third presentation assesses the influence of the nuclear disaster based on mothers’ movement addressing safety and security for food.
We invited Dr. Tsuchiya who is the lead author of the first and the second papers’ mother research project.
１ Disaster vulnerability of lone-mothers and disabled people: Work and social security in post-disaster
（Yuko Tamiya, Kobegakuin University）
Lone mothers or disabled people have been supported by employment policies since they face barriers to engage in paid work. Many of them are also covered income security as they are disadvantage in the labour market that often accompanied financial distress. This paper examines how the Great East Japan Earthquake affected their employment and how social security system including disaster relief worked to prevent poverty risk using qualitative data. The data were collected from August 2012. Our research team carried out a series of semi-structured interviews with the sufferers in Iwate and Fukushima prefecture. The paper finds that public employment supports are of high importance for single mothers and the disabled, and social security system, which is not intended for disaster victims, unexpectedly mitigate the impact of the crisis on the vulnerable.
２ Investigation of the State of Official Support for the Disabled People Suffered the Great Deal of Damage
（Yo Tsuchiya, Aichi University）
It is pointed that disasters actualize the structure of social problems usually hidden. This report verifies that the medium-and long-term effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on “socially vulnerable” considered that the brittleness over the risk of disasters are high. This report focus disabled people as “socially vulnerable”.
It is guessed that the vulnerability of them increased by the structure of the public support as well as the weakness of the life bases from before the disaster.
First, this report analyze the impact of the disaster to disabled people by the qualitative investigation from the viewpoint of family relations, community, social network, and verifies that the function of the welfare state and the emergency support by results from the qualitative investigation and the historical records and date. Moreover this report verifies that the reconstruction of lives of the disabled people suffered the great deal of damage, and systems and the support organizations from the viewpoint of the compatibility and the continuity.
３ The way of living policy considering from mothers’ interviews against radioactive problems
（Rie Iwanaga, Kanagawa University of Human Services）
Until now, I have been interested in the analysis of poverty and kept research on measures against poverty. While growing needs of measures against poverty, because of the diversity of life in this economically prosperous country, devising the effective and efficient policy is not easy. On the other hand, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 and The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused unprecedented damage.
In this paper, I focus on the people who are trying to protect their “socially vulnerable” lives after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Specifically, I conducted a survey to interview mothers who have been trying to protect their children from the spread of radioactive contaminations or other persons concerned. In conclusion, I analyze the factors affect their lives through their daily activities, and develop some suggestions for the way of living policy.
Coordinator: Yuko Suda（Toyo University）
Debater1: Koichi Hiraoka（Ochanomizu University）
Debater2: Mie Morikawa（National Institute of Public Health）
The effort in responding to the increasing number of frail seniors often entails restructuring of existing social institutions. Examples include privatization of long-term care services and changing relationships between the government and the private sector as a result. In many countries, privatization also comes hand in hand with a participation of for-profit organizations in service provision. It changes the roles of nonprofit organizations that have been providing public human services since before privatization policies were introduced. Controlling public expenditures for long-term care is another important issue. Preventing premature institutionalization is emphasized as a means to achieve the goal. Services are increasingly provided in residential settings, which urges redefining the roles of government, family caregivers, and service organizations in a private sphere of family life.
The three presenters in this session have conducted comparative studies between Taiwan and Japan since 2009, as sharing the interest in long-term care and changing roles of existing social institutions. By presenting part of the outcomes from the studies while exchanging discussions with two commentators who are versed with privatization and long-term care policies in and outside Japan, this session aims to contribute in deepening understanding on challenges faced by Taiwan and Japan as the two countries care for aging populations.
１ Does it matter whether ‘nonprofit’ or ‘for-profit’?: Privatization of institutional care for low-income seniors in Taipei and New Taipei Cities
（Yu-Yuan Kuan, National Chung Cheng University）
As part of privatization policies, both nonprofit and for-profit organizations are increasingly engaged in providing long-term care services. In western countries, such privatization increases competitions between the nonprofit and for-profit sectors, resulting in commercialization of nonprofit organizations. Under the Long-Term Care Insurance system in Japan, on the other hand, for-profit organizations are learning to incorporate the functions of nonprofit service organizations.
In Taiwan, part of long-term care services were privatized by the Senior Citizens Welfare Act amended in 1997. What deserves attention is that local governments take different approaches in treating nonprofit and for-profit service organizations, reflecting that the distribution of these organizations differs in each jurisdiction.
Yu-Yuan Kuan compares the Taipei City and the New Taipei City as focusing on the roles of nonprofit and for-profit organizations in providing institutional services for low-income seniors, while considering differences in the approach each local government adopts in dealing with the two sectors.
２ A new organizational form emerging but never social entrepreneurial
（Yuko Suda, Toyo University）
Suda focuses on the fact that, in the privatized area of long-term care services, differences between nonprofit and for-profit organizations are commonly decreasing in western countries and Japan. Her presentation explores the possibility of a new-organizational-form emergence as a result of the interactions between the two sectors.
An organizational theory argues that, in order for a new organizational form to emerge, the common identity (ies) need(s) to be shared among organizations and the shared identity(-ies) need(s) to be codified by audience. Suda conducted a survey of nonprofit and for-profit organizations providing services under the Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system in Japan and identified that nonprofit and for-profit organizations were sharing the identity as LTCI service organizations. Suda also conducted a survey of frail seniors who were using LTCI services and their family members living in the same jurisdiction where the service organization survey was conducted. The outcomes suggested that the organizations’ shared identity was codified by the seniors and families, thus a new organizational form appeared to be emerging. Detailed examination also revealed that the new organizational identity relies on legitimacy obtained by operating as part of the governmental insurance system. The finding was inconsistent with a widely shared expectation that social entrepreneurial entities would emerge out of the nonprofit and for-profit interactions in a privatized area of human services.
３ Conflicting interests between public long-term care services and foreign workers in Taiwan.
（Chen-Fen Chen, Chinese Culture University）
Chen-Fen Chen addresses one of the common challenges faced by Taiwan and Japan, that is a shortage of careworkers. In Taiwan, hiring live-in foreign workers at home is a widely accepted practice as an alternative to public long-term care services. The number of foreign workers in Taiwan was 306 in 1992 when the Taiwanese government formally allowed foreign workers to be engaged in providing care for seniors. Since then, the number of foreign workers increased to reach 208,551 in 2013.
The public rather prefers continuing to hire foreign workers than introducing a public long-term care insurance system based on the fact that foreign workers serve in flexible manners while the cost to hire them still remains relatively low. Chen-Fen Chen demonstrates how the possible introduction of public long-term care insurance system urges reconsideration on the roles of government, family caregivers, and foreign workers in Taiwan.
Coordinator: Kazuo Takada（Hitotsubashi University）
People with difficulty in finding employment is increasing by a variety of factors, for example, issues of life such as breakdown of the family and poverty, low education, poor employment experience, disabilities, disease, long-term unemployment and the repetition of precarious employment. Moreover, in Japan, the government was not previously established sufficient support mechanisms for life and work. In that sense, As well as a problem faced by individuals, this problem is a social problem, and a problem due to the inadequacy of social policy. In the past 10 years, local governments and private organizations have accumulated the results of advanced support. 2010-2012, the government carried out a personal support programme to obtain many results.
In 2013, while inherit these models, the government is planning a new ” Support system of the poor”. In that case, employment preparation support and intermediate labour market programmes will be a center. This session are intended to do raise issues about the job support in the future, from the standpoint of researchers and supporters.
In addition, Hidetomo TAOKA and Hideshi IIJIMA who are nonmember of this Society do a presentation. When to lively discussions, this report is indispensable.
１ Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From the perspective of youth employment support
（Michiko Miyamoto, The Open University of Japan）
In recent years, a number of support programmes have been developed to help young people in long-term unemployment or NEET Since these programmes were launched, it has become apparent that there are not a few young people who are seemingly unemployable despite the various support provided for them. This suggests that the evaluation standards of conventional labour policy is inadequate in the case of some young people, many of whom are in poverty and have low educational achievement. Disability, ill health or mental health problems are also more prevalent in this group. These conditions are usually combined and making it almost impossible for them to enter labour market which is becoming increasingly selective. On this basis, it can be suggested that success of a support programme cannot be measured by solely the number of young people it has helped to enter into employment. This report first reviews the works that have been carried out by regional youth support stations and the personal support pilot scheme and problems that they face. One of the focuses of the review is the intermediate job scheme that has been experimented by some of the support organisations and its possibilities as well as the difficulties. The report then examines the issues of funding, practical aspects of support activities, and the current social security policies that are relevant to long-term youth unemployment or NEET.
２ Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From the perspective of employment support for people with disabilities
（Akira Yonezawa, Meiji Gakuin University）
Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs) are not-for-profit organizations which activate people who are hard to employ through economic activities. WISEs are expected to be vehicles for the active labour market policy in the any developed country including Japan.
This presentation addresses the subject of the WISEs especially for people with disabilities. This presentation is divided into two parts. First, based on research data on the WISEs collected in 2012, I examine the typologies and features of WISEs. Second, I examine the distinguishing local policies supporting the WISEs. Discussing these issues, I try to provide policy and theoretical implications for the future of Intermediate Labour Market Programmes in Japan.
３ Person who face Difficulties in finding Employment and Intermediate Labour Market Programmes ; From support activities of SB Center in Osaka
（Hidetomo Taoka, LLP Osaka Syokugyou Kyouiku Kyoudou Kikou
・Hideshi Iijima, Next Stage Osaka LLP）
Two LLP ran a Social Business Center (SB center), as one of the Osaka Personal Support Modell．The concept is “realization of job experience” and “the creation of a variety of job”.
Our support is Short-term job support, and creation of intermediate labour market. We want to Introduces the efforts of SB center, and to consider the way of employment support in the future.
Coordinator: Mayumi Ohshio（Ryukoku University）
Chair: Michihiko Tokoro（Osaka City University）
Debater: Atsushi Fukasawa（Ritsumeikan University）
In 1964, the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families (amended in 1981 to the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows) was enacted to provide stability and welfare assistance for single-mother families. In addition, it also included measures to provide support for employment. However, single mothers are currently unable to earn sufficient income in spite of their employment rate being higher than 80%. This implies that the majority of children in Japanese single-mother families live in poverty. The Child Welfare Act details the provisions for establishing maternal and child living support facilities. However, just how effective is such social welfare assistance in improving the lives of those in single-mother families? We believe there is a need to clarify the current situation and issues surrounding single-mother families and child welfare services in order to improve the well-being of single mothers and their children. Therefore, we examined the measures of providing support for employment, outlined in the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows, and the roles played by maternal and child living support facilities. Moreover, we refer to measures targeting fatherless households in Korea, which, like Japan, has a patriarchal culture, but is also experiencing a rapid increase in the number of fatherless households.
１ Investigating the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows, Articles No. 25 & No. 26
（Mayumi Ohshio, Ryukoku University）
In 2012, the Special Act on Support for the Employment of Single-Mother Families and Single-Father Families was enacted. This act allows the government to cooperate with private enterprises to implement priority hiring and promote employment for parents in such families as well as increase opportunities for orders from associations for single-mother families and widows. It should be noted that the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows already contains articles related to employment support. Article 25 permits associations of single-mother families and widows to establish shops and hair salons, while Article 26 permits them to engage in cigarette retail. However, these provisions were implemented nearly half a century ago, and their contribution toward creating stability in the lives of single-mother families is unclear. In addition, there are questions concerning why the employment support articles contained in the Welfare Law for Fatherless Families and Widows have not been strengthened.
Therefore, to better understand the circumstances of employment support, we utilized questionnaires to study single-mother family and widow welfare organizations in all prefectures of Japan that are eligible to apply for shops. The questionnaires were administered in fall 2012 with the cooperation of the National Single Mother and Widow Welfare Association. This report summarizes the results related to the major elements of employment support examined in the survey.
２ Study on the Effects of Services at Maternal and Child Living Support Facilities for Impoverished Single-mother Families
（Megumi Sakai, Ryukoku University）
Maternal and child living support facilities are social welfare institutions established to respond to the realities of poverty in single-mother families as well as support both mothers and children in these households. However, the extent to which maternal and child living support facilities have helped impoverished single-mother families is unclear. Therefore, in this study, I interviewed seven women who have used maternal and child living support facilities. I examined the impact of the services at these facilities on poverty among single-mother families. This report discusses the following points.
1) What aspects of facility services do women who have lived in maternal and child living support facilities appreciate most?
2) How do women who have lived in maternal and child living support facilities transform their own lives by using the facility services?
３ Supporting Single-mother Families in Korea
（Baek Seung Kuk, Doshisha University）
In Korea, the number of traditional families is currently decreasing due to the universalization of nuclear and single families, as well as the high divorce and remarriage rates. As a result, other types of families are on the increase. One family type that constitutes a significant portion of these households is the single-parent family. Among single-parent families, over 80% are headed by single mothers, with a high percentage of mothers in their thirties and forties. The reasons for families being headed by a single mother are as follows: ‘Separation by death (29.7%)’, ‘Divorce (32.8%)’ and ‘Unmarried mother/father (11.6%)’. This indicates that the majority of single-mother families are formed as a result of factors other than the death of the father. Although society is rapidly changing, it still subtly values ‘first marriage’, ‘blood ties’ and ‘relative-centred nuclear families’. It also emphasizes patriarchal values and familial ties centred on the father’s side. In addition, families including both parents are considered ‘normal’, particularly in terms of official household units, in which children from single-mother families are tacitly labelled as ‘potential problem kids’. Social prejudice stemming from social stigmas and sex role stereotyping continue to create difficulties for members of single-mother families in placing themselves within society. In particular, single-mother families have a very high chance of falling into the lowest socioeconomic bracket because the mothers find it difficult to maintain stable employment. Moreover, their psychological well-being is perceived as relatively poor as compared to families with both parents . Given that these issues are also linked to poverty and negative impact on children, it is necessary to further examine them before providing preventative welfare support. Thus, this report focuses on the overall difficulties and problems that require urgent resolution and seeks solutions to these problems in order to enhance the welfare and standard of living of these families.
Coordinator: Sadahisa Noguchi（Nihon Fukushi University）
Debater1: Takeshi Tsuchida（Waseda University）
Debater2: Chang-yup Kim（Seoul National University）
Abe administration will join the negotiation with Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP) in July. Question is directed to the participation in TPP from the various areas including the field of agriculture and medical care. The major concern is the dismantling of the medical insurance system (the universal insurance system). The United States has always been requesting to introduce the market mechanism in the health care system and remove the ban of the mixed medical treatment or entry of corporation in medicine. Furthermore, the U.S. interfere the rule for standard prices of medicine and demands for profit entry in the field of health care. The price for pharmaceutical products and medical equipment have already included in Korea-U.S. FTA. The focus of TPP and FTA negotiations with the U.S. is Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISD). Under Korea-U.S. FTA, ISD has already been administered. It is my concern that if ISD is included under TPP aiming at the economic cooperation beyond the framework of FTA, the universal insurance system in Japan might be accused to interfere with the medical market of free price. In this symposium, four experts in the area of medical insurance system in Japan and Korea will attempt to explicate the truth of TPP and Korea-U.S. FTA.
1 What will happen in Japan’s health care system if Japan participate to theTPP: Prediction and challenges
（Ryu Niki,Nihon Fukushi University）
Mr. Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, announced his will to participate to the TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) in January, against his party’s pledge conditionally opposing the entrance to the TPP at the general election last December. The official negotiation to enter the TPP is said to start in July. Mr. Abe repeats his promise to keep Japan’s universal “National Health Insurance System” (NHIS) and supporters of the TPP also argue that the TPP will not harm NHIS. But they never say that NHIS will be improved by the TPP.
I strongly oppose Japan’s participation to the TPP, but I do not think it will destroy NHIS nor induce complete “Kongo Shinryou” (free combination or mixing of public healthcare services and private ones) immediately. “Here and present danger” of the entrance to the TPP is removal or easing of public price control system of pharmaceuticals and medical devices under pressure from the U.S. government, that will induce price hike of both goods. Such change will inevitably increase patients’ co-payment as well as public healthcare expenditures. Then our government will cut reimbursement rate for hospitals/clinics and limit the scope of NHIS’s coverage to tackle to the financial crisis in NHIS due to the increase in public healthcare expenditures. These are the first stage crisis of the TPP participation.
Introduction of market mechanism into healthcare in limited special areas may happen at the second stage crisis.
2 Korea-US Free Trade Agreement and Korean Health System; Tentative Situation and Prospects of Future Impact
（Seoc-kyun Woo,Korean Federation of Medical Activist Groups for Health Rights）
In November 2004, the Korean and the US governments agreed to pursue negotiations for the KORUS FTA and the two parties signed the agreement on June 30, 2007. It was March 15, 2012 when the agreement was into force after the renegotiation and approvals from the US congress and the Korean National Assembly.
The US government intended to amend the WTO agreement in the direction of strengthening free trade but it failed. Therefore, the US international trade policy has switched to emphasize more on regional or bilateral free trade agreements than full scale amendment of the WTO agreement.
The KORUS FTA, same as the US FTAs with others after 2003, is not restricted to removal of tariff barriers. The KORUS is comprehensive economic agreement which can make impact on social policy and social security system including healthcare system. Its features can be seen by enlargement of the scope of investment by including intellectual property rights and its inclusion of ratchet mechanism and Investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (ISD) etc.
These features in the comprehensive economic agreement are especially prominent since The KORUS FTA is the latest FTA by the US.
In this context, the KORUS FTA will have a much broad impact on the Korean healthcare system such as medicine and medical equipments regulations, hospital regulations (allowance of corporate hospitals etc), private health insurance regulations, regulations on harmful substance, controls over tobacco and alcohols.
In fact, a regulation on medicine and medical equipments has been changed in June 2013 and the introduction of corporate hospital becomes new issue. The impact of the KORUS FTA on the Korean healthcare system has become clearly noticeable.
Coordinator: Kazuo Takada（Hitotsubashi University）
Chair: Kimihiko Ishikawa（Meiji University）
It may be a cliché that the Neoliberalism is the basic trend in social policies in the advanced economies. This theory, however, canot explain the policy changes, such as the long-term care insurances in Germany and Japan, and the expansion of public assistance in France and Germany. Kazuo Takada argued in an article “Social Policy for the Monadic Society in the 21st Century” (Social Policy and Labor Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2) that the contemporary social policy is changing from merit-based egalitarianism of the welfare state to merit-free egalitarianism, and he named the new trend monadic social policy, a different policy from the neoliberalist. This session discusses various topics about the Takada’s theory from the presenters’ own perspectives. Yamamoto approaches it from her analysis on Swedish labor market policies; Mori from her study on the unemployment assistance in Germany; and Hieda from his comparative survey in the household data of European countries. The presenters argue the topic with their own original ideas totally independent from Takada’s theory.
１ The types of the long-term unemployed and the inclusive measures in Sweden
（Mayumi Yamamoto, Hokusho University）
The unemployment rate in Sweden has remained at 7-8%, and been away from full-employment. According to the annual report of the labor market board, who was re-employed within six months from unemployment accounted for about 45% of the total in 2011. On the other hand, those who were unemployed for more than one year were 36% of the total. This volume can’t be overlooked. Many of the long-term unemployed participated in the various programs which were provided by labor market program and get the cash benefit with sanctions. These sanctions are utilized if the recipients do not actively take part in the program or other job searching activities. However, it is possible to be a recipient as long as one is active to get new job and able to be offered the institutional and individualized support. It would be considered that these measures are planned on the assumption that there is a certain amount of the long-term unemployed in the society.
Since the long-term unemployed are not uniform, this paper will deal with several measures to support them depending on their needs, and derives some implications to understand how the employment policy is used as a tool for social inclusion in Sweden.
２ Current Situations in the German Labor Market and the Employment Support for Job-seekers in Germany ―The Position of “One-Euro Job”
（Chikako Mori，Saga University）
In Germany, the Institution for the social security for the job-seekers was drastically reformed by the “Hartz Ⅳ” of January 2005, and from then on the job-seekers have come to receive unemployment benefit (called “unemployment benefitⅡ” : UBⅡ) and support for job-seeking with the newly enacted “Social Security CodeⅡ”
In this presentation the support for job-seeking for the UBⅡrecipients, mainly “1-Euro-Job”, one of the institutions of offering employment opportunity, would be discussed. The 1-Euro-Job is the additional and public job with low salary for the people who are low-skilled and/or hard to be employed. It would be considered how the 1-Euro-Job contributes to the reintegration of job-seekers into the labor market, or whether it is a kind of rehabilitation, and whether it displaces the ordinary work. Moreover, some implications for the “medium work” which is now discussed in Japan in relation to the independence support for the needy people would be derived from this study.
３ Neo-liberalism? Merit-free egalitarianism?: Microanalysis of household data in 6 European countries
（Takeshi Hieda, Osaka City University）
In recent decades, advanced democracies have experienced transformation in their welfare states. However, social policy scholars have not reached a shared view on how we should characterize the sea change of social policy in the late 20th and early 21st century. On the one hand, some scholars describe these changes in social and labor policies as “neoliberalism” because recent workfare reforms require social benefit recipients to enter the labor market or training and tightening the eligibility to various benefits. On the other, Takada (2012) characterize recent changes in social policy as “merit-free egalitarianism” since these changes, such as Hartz IV reform (Germany) and RSA (France), decouple—not tighten—the linkage between paid work and an autonomous, decent life. This paper derives observable implications from these two confronting claims and evaluates their validity with empirical data. Specifically, it analyzes household data in 6 European countries—U.K., Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, France, and Italy—by using the data from Luxembourg Income Study (LIS).
Coordinator: Aya Abe（National Institute of Population & Social Security Research）
Debater1: Yosuke Hirayama（Kobe University）
Debater2: Michiko Bando（National Institute of Public Health）
The discussions around the minimum standard of living a very topical issue in Japan, yet it rarely involves discussion of the role of “housing”. Housing, no doubt, plays a central role in the minimum standard of living, since not only because it is often the largest expenditure in low-income households, but also because it directly affects health and well-being of residents.
In this session, we will try to approach the problem of housing in the context of minimum standard of living from both quality and quantity perspective. First, we will present the status of “minimum housing” using various micro-data and then also introduce the audience to People’s perception of “minimum housing” using the MIS methodology developed in the UK.
Then we will present an analysis of what affects the satisfaction of housing using our own micro-data. Lastly, we will conclude with discussions on the status of Japanese housing policy and what issues are present in terms of assuring minimum standard of living in housing.
１ The Analysis of Minimum Standard of Housing using Japanese micro-data
（Aya Abe, National Institute of Population & Social Security Research）
This presentation first introduces the audience to People’s perception of “minimum housing” using the MIS methodology developed in the UK. Then, it will present the results of “2008 Shakai Seikatu Chosa” which surveyed quality of housing as well as other standard of living. The results will show percentage of households lacking the “minimum housing”.
２ Housing satisfaction of Non-house owners
（Akemi Ueda, Tokyo International University）
This presentation will show the results of “Survey on Minimum quality of Housing” which was conducted in 2012. It will analyze the determining factors of housing satisfaction of non-house owners and shows factors such as health, number of rooms, age of houses, amenities affect how people feel about their housing.
３ Issues in Assuring Rights to Housing
（Hanako Odagawa, Tokyo Metropolitan University）
This presentation will discuss the issues and challenges on housing policy to secure the rights to housing of people. While social housing has been the core of the housing policy for low income families the investment on it is now diminishing and it requires the restructuring of the policy framework. After giving some insights on the effects of the Housing Safety Net Act and temporal housing benefit implemented in the latter half of the first decade of 2000s this presentation will discuss the possibilities of varied social housing schemes and housing benefit by introducing experiences in other countries.
Coordinator: Makoto Ishii（Oita University）
Magosaburo OHARA: a Business Administrator with Warm Heart & Cool Head
Reviewer: Naho Sugita（Doshisha University）
“Intoku”,The Thought on Poor Relief of Wealthy Merchant : Philanthropy in Edo era
Reviewer: Naoko Tomie（Ibaraki University）
History of German Social Insurance: Emergence and Development of “Sozialstaat”
Reviewer：Chikako Mori（Saga University）
Coordinator: Hideaki Kikuchi（Musashi University）
Historical Evolution of the French Healthcare System
Reviewer: Takaaki Odama（Japan Society for the Promotion of Science ）
Pension System in the United States
Reviewer: Takehiro Negishi（Kokugakuin University）
The Urban Under-stratum and Workers in Korea: Focusing on Non- Standardization of Labor
Reviewer: Akira Suzuki（Hosei University）
Coordinator: Koh Igami（Kobe International University）
Formation of Social Policies and Role of the Nation: Aiming for Establishment of Practical Policies
Reviewer: Koichi Hiraoka（Ochanomizu University）
Policy-Orinented Sociology: Welfare State and Civil Society
Reviewer: Makoto Kono（Hyogo University）
The White-Collar Labor Market and School Career
Reviewer: Yuji Hayashi（Tokyo Metropolitan University）
Coordinator: Shogo Takegawa（Tokyo University）
（Yosuke Hirayama,Kobe University）
By the late twentieth century, following the sustained development of property ownership, home-owning society has effectively become ‘mature’ in Japan. This implies that great emphasis was placed on the reproduction of home ownership, rather than its creation. Since the 1990s, however, economic decline has combined with neoliberal transformations in government housing policy to undermine the reproductive capacity of Japan’s homeowner society. The contemporary housing situation of Japan is now raising questions as to the extent to which home-owning societies can be maintained, and whether a ‘post-home-owning society’ will emerge or not. Private ownership in Japan continues to occupy the main position as the dominant housing tenure. Japan’s home-owning society will therefore be likely to be maintained in the foreseeable future. However, home ownership in present-day Japan is completely different from what it was before. For the past two decades, most owner-occupied houses have consistently generated capital losses and an increasing number of homeowners have been trapped in negative equity. Moreover, younger generations are now increasingly being excluded from conventional routes that could take them into property ownership. This paper explores transformations in Japan’s home-owning society, placing particular emphasis on the role played by neoliberal policy in eroding the traditional system of reproducing home ownership.
（Yoshihiro Okamoto, Chukyo University）
Japan’s habitation is holding unbalance called the surplus and the housing poor of a residence today. This report catches the present habitation poverty through the change of the “living capital” which pulls out the structure supporting a life from society, and it presents the suggestion to a habitation policy.
”Living capital” consists of the following four sides. Thus, they are “the appropriate space which underpins a life based on a dwelling”, “the appropriate economic burden of housing expenses”, “conformity to the life stage of living environment”, and “participation for forming living environment suitable for a life.” This “living capital” changed at various points with change of economic society and a regional structure, and habitation poverty actualized.
This report mainly considers the relations between living capital and “working”, and “a welfare measure.” Although the dwelling is indispensable to a life, the income by working supports a security and maintenance of the dwelling. “The relation between a dwelling and working” has changed in response to the influence of the change of the urban infrastructure, industrial structure, and technology.
It analyses the relation also including the commercialization degree of a dwelling with the geographical relation between a place of work and a dwelling, and considers the positioning of a dwelling again.
Moreover, when it takes homeless issue, it shows the structure of the housing acquisition in which stoppage of an income loses an accommodation easily. And it is shown that the occurrence of the event in lives such as advanced age, the illness, the disabled unemployment and a disaster triggers the habitation poverty.
Furthermore, although the focus for measures moves from the institution to the local in aging, change of a family composition, and the medical treatment and the welfare makes the role of an appropriate dwelling conspicuous, it shows that the dwelling in the area is insufficient for supporting a life of all people.
At last it works on the measure which supports the “living capital” construction which realizes appropriate habitation for a broader meaning of homeless issue.
（Lisa Kuzunishi, Osaka City University）
The circumstances of family relationships and lifestyles in relation to communities are changing by the hour and by the day. Due to the rise in divorce rates, increases in the number of people who have become single once again, and in single-parent households, are showing a consistent upward trend. The trend towards late marriages or never marrying at all is rapidly accelerating, and the choices to not marry or to not have children are no longer particularly unusual. Even for those who are married, where both partners are employed, there are families that do not live together due to the demands of work. The custom of children looking after their parents is in decline, and there is a conspicuous increase in households consisting only of the elderly. Due to changes like these in the forms of families, and ideas about what families should be, it has become difficult to manage care-giving issues such as housekeeping, child rearing, and nursing of the elderly and invalids within the bounds of traditional families. Even without urgently pressing problems of care-giving, the bonds with families and communities are being lost and there are many people living alone who have become isolated.
Among these, the single-parent households that are the focus of this paper are typical cases where the burden of child rearing is linked to difficulties in finding and keeping employment, and consequently to vulnerable livelihoods. For single parent households where one person has to take on the dual burdens of both employment and child rearing, private child rearing assistance is essential to help supplement the inadequacies of public day care. Where this cannot be secured, the reality is that there is a high probability of being excluded from steady employment.
In recent years, attention has focused on ‘shared housing,’ a living pattern where households who are not related by blood live together and through communal activity try to solve the concrete issues of living such as child rearing and housekeeping.
In this paper, I will first present an overview of the problems related to living and livelihood for single parents, and then next will describe case studies of shared housing aimed at single parents that have been verified within Japan.
（Michihiko Tokoro, Osaka City University）
Housing policy is a core in social policy and Britain has presented interesting developments in this area. The post-war welfare state provided council housing nationwide, and then, Margaret Thatcher’s government implemented ‘right to buy’ programme under her privatisation policy. While public sectors housing provision declined, cash benefits to support the tenants grew since the 1980s. Current coalition government aims to cut the social security benefits, in particular, targeting the housing benefit. It is feared that the recent policy changes would lead further difficulties for those with housing needs.
Analysis of British housing policy offers a good platform for social policy debates, including the role of state, market, cash benefit and social housings to fulfil the citizen’s basic needs. It is also important to examine the outcome of housing policy in the context of social exclusion. My paper will try to suggest the direction for Japanese social policy by evaluating the British policy developments.